Nippur and The Glass Road

Can glass bead holes be used to string people along?

Danish Holes In The Ground.
Amongst the items recovered from Bronze Age graves in Denmark are 3,400 year old glass beads from the ancient Mesopotamian city of Nippur.

The burial sites from the Danish Bronze Age dated from 3,400 years ago provided beautiful glass beads as a special treat.

Altogether, 271 glass beads have been found at 51 burials sites across Denmark with the majority originating from Nippur, Mesopotamia, which is about 50 km southeast of today’s Baghdad in Iraq.

Beads Found in 3,400-year-old Nordic Graves Were Made by King Tut’s Glassmaker –
Archaeology World Team – 7 Feb 2020

Nippur was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.

Nippur was situated on both sides of the Shatt-en-Nil canal, one of the earliest courses of the Euphrates, between the present bed of that river and the Tigris, almost 160 km southeast of Baghdad.

Also found in these Danish graves are blue glass beads from Amarna in Egypt.

Ancient Egyptian blue glass beads reached Scandinavia
Science News – Bruce Bower – 19 Dec 2014

All 23 of the blue beads were analyzed using plasma-spectrometry, which is a technique that enables comparison of trace elements in the beads without damaging or destroying them but while still offering plenty of information.

The results of the analysis showed that the blue beads buried with the women actually originated from the same glass workshop in Amarna that adorned King Tutankhamun at his funeral in 1323 BCE.

Beads Found in 3,400-year-old Nordic Graves Were Made by King Tut’s Glassmaker –
Archaeology World Team – 7 Feb 2020

Egyptian Bead Holes
Burrowing down into the Egyptian blue bead story finds a few fun facts.

1) Amarna was “abandoned” about 14 years after it was “established”.

Amarna is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established (1346 BC) and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC).

The area is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of Minya, some 58 km (36 mi) south of the city of al-Minya, 312 km (194 mi) south of the Egyptian capital Cairo and 402 km (250 mi) north of Luxor.

2) No glazing kilns were found at Amarna.

Egyptian faience is a sintered-quartz ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various colours, with blue-green being the most common.

The excavations led by Petrie at Tell-Amarna and Naucratis have reported finding workshop evidence.

Nicholson explains, however, that while a square furnace-like structure at Amarna may be related to faience production, Petrie did not encounter any actual faience Kilns at the site.

Lucas documented a large number of molds at the palace area of Amenhotep III, at Qantir from Dynasties 19-20 and at the palace area of Naucratis also described in different sources as a scarab maker’s and faience factory.

However, seeing there is a lack of carefully documented archaeological evidence as to the nature of faience factory sites, direct information about the glazing process does not exist.

The term faience broadly encompassed finely glazed ceramic beads, figures and other small objects found in Egypt as early as 4000 BC, as well as in the Ancient Near East, the Indus Valley Civilisation and Europe. … Examples of ancient faience are also found in Minoan Crete, which was likely influenced by Egyptian culture.

3) It’s unknown how the Egyptian Blue pigment was manufactured.

Egyptian blue is a pigment that was used in ancient Egypt for thousands of years. … It was used in antiquity as a blue pigment to color a variety of different media such as stone, wood, plaster, papyrus, and canvas, and in the production of numerous objects, including cylinder seals, beads, scarabs, inlays, pots, and statuettes.

Its use continued throughout the Late period, and Greco-Roman period, only dying out in the fourth century AD, when the secret to its manufacture was lost.

4) Mesopotamian glass and Akkadian letters were found in Amarna.

This article presents new evidence of the wide dispersion of Mesopotamian glass, 1400–1100 BCE. The chemical analyses of glass material from Amarna, Egypt, demonstrate that glass of Mesopotamian origin reached Egypt.

Mesopotamian glass from Late Bronze Age Egypt, Romania, Germany, and Denmark.
Jeanette Varberg, Bernard Gratuze, Flemming Kaul, Anne Haslund Hansen, Mihai Rotea, Mihai Wittenberger – Journal of Archaeological Science – 74 – 2016

In 1887 a local woman digging for sebakh uncovered a cache of over 300 cuneiform tablets (now commonly known as the Amarna Letters).

These tablets recorded select diplomatic correspondence of the Pharaoh and were predominantly written in Akkadian, the lingua franca commonly used during the Late Bronze Age of the Ancient Near East for such communication.

The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are mostly written in a script known as Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than that of ancient Egypt, and the language used has sometimes been characterised as a mixed language, Canaanite-Akkadian.

The Invisible Glass Road
The Glass Road narrative enables a westward flow of glass beads into Europe.

Furthermore, the chemical analyses of glass beads from Romania, Northern Germany and Denmark demonstrate that they were made of Mesopotamian glass.

Mesopotamian glass from Late Bronze Age Egypt, Romania, Germany, and Denmark.
Jeanette Varberg, Bernard Gratuze, Flemming Kaul, Anne Haslund Hansen, Mihai Rotea, Mihai Wittenberger – Journal of Archaeological Science – 74 – 2016

This westward flow also brings language, MtDNA and carnelian from India.


Carnelian is a brownish-red … semi-precious gemstone.

Indus Civilisation carnelian bead with white design, ca. 2900–2350 BC. Found in Nippur.

Indus-Mesopotamia relations are thought to have developed during the second half of 3rd millennium BCE, until they came to a halt with the extinction of the Indus valley civilization after around 1900 BCE.

Mesopotamia had already been an intermediary in the trade of lapis lazuli between South Asia and Egypt since at least about 3200 BCE, in the context of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations.


It’s very doubtful these beads were carted along a Glass Road [or even an Amber Road] as the evidence shows glass ingots and amber beads were shipped by sea.

The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the east shore of Uluburun (Grand Cape), and about 6 miles (9.7 km) miles southeast of Kaş, in south-western Turkey.

The Uluburun ship’s cargo consisted mostly of raw materials that were trade items, which before the ship’s discovery were known primarily from ancient texts or Egyptian tomb paintings.

The cargo matches many of the royal gifts listed in the Amarna letters found at El-Amarna, Egypt.


◦ Approximately 175 glass ingots of cobalt blue, turquoise, and lavender were found (earliest intact glass ingots known).
◦ Chemical composition of cobalt blue glass ingots matches those of contemporary Egyptian core-formed vessels and Mycenaean pendant beads, which suggests a common source.

Beads of amber (Baltic origin)

The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

The evidence points towards imported glass ingots being re-worked in secondary workshops in the “Mycenaean world” [and possibly elsewhere].

Finally, on the background of the analysis results it is proposed that the chemical composition of some of the beads in question indicates a mixture of glass of Mesopotamian and Egyptian origin.

Probably, the mixture of the glass material took place at secondary workshops in the Mycenaean world.

Mesopotamian glass from Late Bronze Age Egypt, Romania, Germany, and Denmark.
Jeanette Varberg, Bernard Gratuze, Flemming Kaul, Anne Haslund Hansen, Mihai Rotea, Mihai Wittenberger – Journal of Archaeological Science – 74 – 2016

This was an Old World where the Varangian Vikings ranged across the Northern Sea from Scandinavia to the Black and Caspian Seas. An Old World where the Northern Sea connected the East to the West.


Whether this all happened 3,400 years ago is also very doubtful.

The preferred mainstream narrative [amongst other things] suggests ship design did not evolve for about 2,000 years because the design of the Mycenaeans ships are [coincidently] similar to the Viking longships.


Coincidently, the Sea Peoples are eerily similar to the Vikings who were active seafaring raiders for about 273 years between 793 and 1066 AD.



But, as always, review the evidence and string your own thoughts together.

Gallery | This entry was posted in Catastrophic English, Catastrophism, Geology, History, Language, Latin Languages, Roman Chronology. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to Nippur and The Glass Road

  1. Meanwhile in the Antipodes, long, long ago, others hunted and gathered in unaware collective bliss,000_years.html.

  2. Patrick Donnelly says:

    Eventually, the power supplied by the filament to the Sun and planets will cause an instability resulting in a nova, causing the star to tighten and become brighter. The orbits will extend and there may be additional planets, emanating from the star and maybe also from Jupiter and Saturn. Planets will absorb additional charge, expanding slightly but will also be subject to a strengthened pinch from the star.

    These expansions and contractions will cause devastating eruptions. The blow off from the star will mean massive flooding and lightning discharges between planets as they close and also as they form alignments. Meteorites of enormous size, and massive lumps of metals of all sorts, cornucopiae, will fall gently, at 200kms per hour, to the planets. Telepathy and empathy will be enhanced and slowly decline.

    Malagabay makes the case for the calendar revisions of the recent past as a result of these changes, without my explanation. Sumer used 360 days for a year. We do not know how long those days were at that time.

  3. Patrick Donnelly says:

    Ferengi = Varangi an?
    Viking is an activity as you know. Homer’s Odyssey was designed to appeal to ship going travellers.

  4. CW says:

    Well done, Tim!

  5. johnm33 says:

    King Tut upset his Greater King Ashurbanipal and was deposed with the aid of the Greek ‘kings’ who ruled the 7 fortified cities which were the med. access to the nile. He is the one who died on the battlefield in the theban plays and his sister ‘Helen’ is the one who buried him, against the direct orders of Ay[ashurbanipal], and as Velikovsky mentions was buried alive for her trouble. The Trojan war was a backdrop to this, a fight for supremecy and the kingdom of Egypt between Ay, his armies and greek mercenaries, and the Celts/Chaldeans. Ay couldn’t admit to the murder of Helen so some fable about kidnap was concocted. Tut and Helens royal daughter was pledged to Menelaus/Seti whos son was Ramases II who became a vassal of the resurgent Chaldeans, led by Hattusilis III/Nebuchudnezzar, after the battle of Carcamesh/Kadesh. The defeated Assyrians, royals and retained, departed to the north, via the Caspian, and became the Asir, taking their tech and kingship with them.
    During the Trojan campaign when Achillies the foremost warrior was denied Cassandra he led a party to rescue the Harem and it’s offspring from Amarna thus securing a royal wife, they ended up in Ireland, she as Scota. After their escape the people of the harem separated and chose their own abodes.
    As to the dates??

  6. Pingback: Nippur and The Great Trench | MalagaBay

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