Nippur and The Great Trench

The extraordinary excavation of Nippur at the end of the 19th century provided extraordinary evidence that the Fall of Babylon [officially 539 BC] coincided with the transformation of cuneiform into Arabic letters at the Arabian Horizon [637 CE].

The Chronology
The Ancient Mesopotamia storyline starts at “the beginning of written history” and ends in 539 BC with the Fall of Babylon.

The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamia

Textbooks tell of Babylon being “conquered by the Achaemenid Empire”.

The Fall of Babylon denotes the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire after it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BCE.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_Babylon

The Achaemenid Empire c. 550–330 BC, also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great.

Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Empire

On the other hand:

The Uncalibrated Radiocarbon Dating curve indicates Babylon was conquered catastrophically by a natural disaster that occurred around 503 BC.

The gap between Anaximander’s cylindrical map of [say] 546 BC and Ptolemy’s cylindrical map arriving in Europe in 1406 AD reinforces the view the mainstream have inserted [more than] 1,200 phantom years into the historical narrative.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/07/24/alaskan-muck-anaximanders-cake/

The Uncalibrated Radiocarbon Dating curve also indicates the mainstream have inserted about “1,200 phantom years” into their textbook chronology.

… if their time wasn’t quite so precious they would also discover that by using “difficult and controversial” techniques to enthusiastically extend their Romano-British concrete chronologies from 434 BC to 315 AD they have created [over] 1,200 phantom years.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/11/24/deranged-dating-the-roman-problem/

In general terms these “1,200 phantom years” begin with the Achaemenid Empire and last “until the 7th century Muslim conquest” i.e. the Arabian Horizon centred on 637 CE.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/10/10/three-flavours-of-700-year-old-fudge/

The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire.

It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthian Empire.

Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control.

In AD 226, the eastern regions of Mesopotamia fell to the Sassanid Persians.

The division of Mesopotamia between Roman (Byzantine from AD 395) and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamia

In more specific Mesopotamian terms these “1,200 phantom years” align with the birth of the Achaemenid Empire [550 BC] and the death of the Sassanid Empire [651 AD].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Empire

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sasanian_Empire

The artefact evidence from Mesopotamia indicates the catastrophic Arabian Horizon dovetails with Nippur house construction in “about 700 A.D.” and “the transformation of the ancient cuneiform script into the Arabic letters”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yazid_III

All these objects in the Jewish settlement were determined by Kufic coins found with them to belong to the seventh or eighth century A.D.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 113 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n146/mode/1up

A brick well at this point was choked with earth, which was excavated down to the water level, recovering some hundreds of tablet fragments of the same period, which had fallen or been thrown into it.

At C, at a somewhat higher level, we found a fine deposit of tablets of the Cosszean period, circa 1300 B.C.

At H, Haynes found remains of the Sargon period (3800 B.C.), almost at the surface.

In the same mounds, and often at but a slightly higher level, only on the summits instead of in the valleys, are found the houses of the Jewish town.

These houses are in all cases of unburned brick, and resemble, or, in fact, seem to be identical with the houses of ordinary town Arabs of the present day in Hillah, Shatra, Diwanieh, and similar towns in that region.

Not only do we find that the houses of the present day in neighboring towns are identical in structure with those built by the Jews at Nippur about 700 A.D., but the ordinary structures of the earlier periods back to the time of Sargon are of the same type and material ; and it is only in exceptional cases that the shape of bricks or details of architecture give any clue to date.

A similar homogeneity exists in the pottery and household utensils found in the houses and graves.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 185 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n246/mode/1up

Kufic coins found in some of the houses of this settlement indicated that it was in existence as late as the seventh century A.D.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 183 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n242/mode/1up

Kufic script is a style of Arabic script that gained prominence early on as a preferred script for Quran transcription and architectural decoration, and it has since become a reference and an archetype for a number of other Arabic scripts.

It developed from the Nabataean alphabet in the city of Kufa,

The main characteristic of the Kufic script “appears to be the transformation of the ancient cuneiform script into the Arabic letters” according to Enis Timuçin Tan.

Kufic was prevalent in manuscripts from the 7th to 10th centuries.

Around the 8th century, it was the most important of several variants of Arabic scripts with its austere and fairly low vertical profile and a horizontal emphasis.

Until about the 11th century it was the main script used to copy the Qur’an.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kufic

Kufa, also spelled Kufah, is a city in Iraq, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) south of Baghdad, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kufa

The Arabian Horizon is where [for better or worse] the Persian, Islamic and Christian chronologies converge for reconciliation.

https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=119041

Khosrow II, also known as Khosrow Parviz was the last great Sasanian king (shah) of Iran, ruling from 590 to 628, with an interruption of one year.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khosrow_II

The Rashidun Caliphs, often simply called, collectively, “the Rashidun”, is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely:

Abu Bakr                     (632–634 CE)
Umar ibn al-Khattab, (Umar І, 634–644 CE)
Uthman ibn Affan             (644–656 CE)
Ali ibn Abi Talib            (656–661 CE) 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashidun

Bismillah is a phrase in Arabic meaning “in the name of God“, it is also the first word in the Qur’an, and refers to the Qur’an’s opening phrase.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bismillah

The Arabian Horizon is where 700 Phantom Years have been spliced into Western History to accommodate the fictional Roman Empire narrative.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/10/10/three-flavours-of-700-year-old-fudge/

Note
The dramatised Roman story extends back to 509 BC so the Roman Republic can enter stage left when Babylon finally exits stage right in 539 BC.

The rise to prominence of ancient Rome is difficult to comprehend …

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/14/roads-to-rome/

The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic

The Catastrophe
Satellite imagery suggests catastrophic change occurred at Nippur.

Nippur was situated on both sides of the Shatt-en-Nil canal, one of the earliest courses of the Euphrates, between the present bed of that river and the Tigris, almost 160 km southeast of Baghdad.

It is represented by the great complex of ruin mounds known to the Arabs as Nuffar, written by the earlier explorers Niffer, divided into two main parts by the dry bed of the old Shatt-en-Nil (Arakhat).

The highest point of these ruins, a conical hill rising about 30 m above the level of the surrounding plain, northeast of the canal bed, is called by the Arabs Bint el-Amiror “prince’s daughter”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nippur

View larger image

Terrestrial photography supports catastrophic change.

Nippur was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.[citation needed]

It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god Enlil, the “Lord Wind”, ruler of the cosmos, subject to An alone.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nippur

Enlil, later known as Elil, is an ancient Mesopotamian god associated with wind, air, earth, and storms.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enlil

Anu or An is the divine personification of the sky, supreme god, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion. Anu was believed to be the supreme source of all authority, for the other gods and for all mortal rulers, and he is described in one text as the one “who contains the entire universe”.

He is identified with the north ecliptic pole centered in the constellation Draco and, along with his sons Enlil and Enki, constitutes the highest divine triad personifying the three bands of constellations of the vault of the sky.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_(mythology)

View larger image

And archaeological excavations confirmed catastrophic change.

Full scale digging was begun by an expedition from the University of Pennsylvania. The work involved four seasons of excavation between 1888 and 1900 and was led by John Punnett Peters, John Henry Haynes, and Hermann Volrath Hilprecht.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nippur

Osman Hamdi Bey (1842 – 1910) was an Ottoman administrator, intellectual, art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter. He was also an accomplished archaeologist, and is regarded as the pioneer of the museum curator’s profession in Turkey.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osman_Hamdi_Bey

John Henry Haynes (1849 – 1910) was an American traveller, archaeologist and photographer, best known for his work at the first two American archaeological excavations in the Mediterranean, and Mesopotamia at Nippur and Assos.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Haynes

John Henry Haynes:
A Photographer and Archaeologist in the Ottoman Empire
Robert G Ousterhout – 2016

Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/0956594867
Amazon UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0956594867

John Punnett Peters (1852 – 1921) was an American Episcopal clergyman and Orientalist, born in New York City. … professor of Hebrew at the University of Pennsylvania (1885-93) and from 1888 to 1895 conducted excavations at Nippur

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Punnett_Peters

Hermann Volrath Hilprecht (1859 – 1925) was a German-American Assyriologist and archaeologist. … As second Assyriologist in charge, he participated in the first campaign of excavations at Nippur in 1889.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Volrath_Hilprecht

Ziggurats were conventional representations of mountains; a survival of ancient, primitive, religious ideas.

The ziggurat of the temple of Bel at Nippur, or rather the temple itself, with the ziggurat as apex, was an artificial mountain, and the inscriptions found there inform us that the name of this temple was, in fact, E-kur, or Mountain House, while the ziggurat was called Imgarsag, Mountain of Heaven, or Sagash, High Towering.

The small brick structure that crowned the ziggurat was the mysterious dwelling-place of the unseen god, emblem of the tabernacle above the clouds, and in so far similar to the Holy of Holies of the Jewish temple at Jerusalem.

At the base of the ziggurat stood the altar at which were offered the sacrifices to the god that dwelt upon the summit.

Such was the origin and meaning of the ziggurat, or high place.

The only other region, so far as known, in which similar structures have been discovered, is Southern Arabia.

The ziggurat of our temple was in height and extent inferior to that of Babylon as described by Herodotus.

His had eight stages, ours two; his was a furlong square, ours, measuring over the buttresses, two hundred and sixty-four feet by one hundred and eighty-five.

But the arrangement of our temple was such that the whole enclosure, about a furlong square, might be regarded as the lowest terrace, and each change of elevation as a stage, thus making three or four stages instead of two, and conforming more closely to Herodotus’ description.

But the only mass of solid masonry was the two-staged structure near the northwestern edge, which constituted the ziggurat proper.

Starting at the southern corner of this, I cut a trench through the centre.

It proved to be a solid mass of unbaked brick, sixty-seven feet and a half thick from top to bottom.

First there were some six feet of immense blocks of adobe, then a mass of smaller sun-dried bricks arranged in a system so singular that there could be no doubt of its homogeneity.

A strange find made here was a goose egg contained in a cavity between blocks of unbaked brick.

Some humorous or mischievous workman had walled it in two thousand years or so ago, and there we found it still intact.

Beneath the ziggurat we found a mass of ashes, and below these again the remains of other walls of earlier date, the bricks in which contained fragments of still earlier pottery.

We descended thirteen feet below the bottom of the ziggurat and found everywhere in pottery, bricks, and the like, evidences of a civilization substantially unchanged, but no remains of an earlier ziggurat, and no inscriptions.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 122 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n155/mode/1up

The houses or rooms above described had their foundations about 5.5 metres below the surface, and rested on earth well packed together, about a metre in depth.

This again rested upon a mass of rubble and debris containing no walls, but great quantities of bricks and fragments of bricks, some of them with green-glazed surfaces, and many bearing inscriptions of Ashurbanipal.

Everywhere, on the northwest, the southwest, and the northeast, as well as in the great trench to the southeast of the ziggurat, we found evidence that there had been a very thorough demolition of some former structures containing large amounts of baked brick before that restoration of the temple was made which gave the ziggurat its cruciform shape, and surrounded it with the buildings of unbaked brick, described above.

Below this mass of earth and rubble, which may have been together about 1.25 metres in thickness, there had been to the southeast of the ziggurat, as late as Ashurbanipal’s time, an open court paved in brick.

Various fragments of pavements were found in different parts of this space.

I found three pavements in an excavation which I conducted to the Sargon level in a room somewhat further to the northeast than the great trench ; and Haynes reports three successive pavements within five feet in the same general locality.

Apparently each of these pavements was once continuous over the whole section, but only fragments still remain here and there.

Inscribed bricks found in some of these fragments of pavements show that one of them was the work of Ur-Ninib, King of Isin, who is supposed to have lived about 2600 B.C.

In general, however, the bricks of which these pavements were composed were uninscribed.

The line which is now marked by the inner wall on the plan and section seems to have been at the time of the existence of these pavements the southeastern boundary of the great court of the ziggurat ; and the two conical solid towers in that wall appear to have been in existence at that period.

I think it not impossible that at that time these were columns of the same general significance as the Jachin and Boaz which stood before the Temple of Yahweh, at Jerusalem.

Similar columns were erected in front of all Phoenician temples, and they appear also in ancient Arabian worship as an adjunct of the Temple.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 157 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n204/mode/1up

To return to the great trench ; almost nine metres below the surface of the plateau we came upon a solid terrace of crude bricks of Ur-Gur, something over two metres in thickness.

This constituted an enormous platform, or terrace, and was shown by excavations at various points to have extended beneath and on all sides of the ziggurat, which stood on its northeastern edge.

The southeastern part of this terrace, as far as the towers, was originally in an open court.

This court was flanked, at least on part of its northeastern side, by buildings, but its further dimensions we do not yet know, nor the character of the buildings which may have stood, in those days, at various points around the ziggurat.

At various points above this terrace, toward the ziggurat and near Ur-Gur’s causeway, we found a few very beautiful small clay tablets, belonging apparently to the second dynasty of Ur, 2500 B.C.

Immediately below this terrace I found constructions of mud brick with door-sockets of Sargon ; while at the same level in another place Haynes found a terrace and pavement of bricks, bearing the stamps of both Naram-Sin and Sargon.

I also found at this level a clay brick stamp of Sargon.

Here were found also a number of vases, and vase fragments, chiefly in marble, of a new king, Alu-Sharshid, king of Kish, one of which reads: “Alusharshid, King of Kishatu, presented to Bel from the spoil of Elam,when he had subjugated Elamand Bara’se. ”

More numerous fragments of vases of this king were found by me scattered over Ur-Gur’s platform, and also in a hole or cellar sunk in that platform, under and by the side of the second or inner temple wall, possibly originally intended as a safety vault for the deposit of the temple treasures.

With these latter, in this cellar, were found the three large, unformed, marble blocks bearing the rude inscription of Lugal-kigub-nidudu, already referred to, and a small glass bottle.

It looked as though someone had intentionally broken to pieces at this place a quantity of vases of earlier kings.

Among the vase fragments found by me, partly here and partly below Ur-Gur’s platform, in addition to those already mentioned, there were also inscriptions of kings of Erech, Sirpurla, or Lagash, and other places, of a date as early as 4000 B.C.

In the case of one of these fragments it appeared that Bur-Sin of Ur, 2400 B.C., had taken an older vase dedicated to Ishtar by a king of Erech, and re-dedicated it to Bel of Nippur, in the same way in which he re-dedicated the diorite door-socket with the inscription of Lugalkigub-nidudu.

The Sargon level was 11.5 to 12 metres below the surface.

This was as deep as my excavations were conducted systematically throughout the trench, though, as stated, I reached the same level in a room to the northeast of this trench, and also at the southern inner corner of the great wall.

At the latter place I found nothing which enabled me to date the strata; but conducting a tunnel under the great wall I found quantities of charred wood, indicating a conflagration.

A tunnel was also carried through and under the great wall, at the southeastern end of trench I, and here, as shown by the section, we descended almost five metres below plain level.

But while my excavations in trench i were in general carried down to Sargon level, 11.5 to 12 metres below the 14-metre level, toward the northeastern end of this trench I descended by a shaft to a depth of 14.50 metres.

My notes on the strata found in this well show that 5.5 metres below the surface we reached the foundations of the walls of the buildings of the later reconstruction.

Below this was formless debris to the depth of 8.40 metres.

Here we found the mud-brick terrace of Ur-Gur, built of his characteristic small bricks.

We reached the bottom of this terrace at 10.50 metres below the surface.

At the depth of 13.20 metres we found an inscribed vase of Alu-Sharshid, King of Kish.

At a depth of 12.95 metres ‘ we found a large water-jar of the same type found in all strata late and early.

Below this we found sherds and foundations of crude brick walls, but nothing by which date could be fixed.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 159 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n206/mode/1up

The archaeological excavations compounded the catastrophe.

The archaeologists left a trail of desecration, disfigurement and destruction in their wake because there was no comprehensive preservation plan.

Ultimately, these sanctimonious academics behaved like the “hyenas” they scorned.

Once we had a violent storm of thunder and lightning.

This seemed to be an extremely unusual thing in that region, and all the people were greatly frightened.

Salih Effendi betook himself to his tent and read aloud from the Koran passages intended to charm away the evil spirits of the air.

After the storm there was a vivid and beautiful display of cloud-lightning immediately above and beyond the ziggurat of Bel.

The people thought that the gods or evil spirits were wroth, and for a while I could fancy myself back in the days when Bint-el-Amir was indeed a ziggurat, and the people regarded any such phenomenon as a manifestation of the wrath of Bel.

After each rainstorm women and girls from the neighboring camps swarmed over the mounds digging up graves with their hands like so many hyenas.

You would see them everywhere in little parties, their gowns girded up well above the knee, bent half double, scouring the ground for old seals, beads, and ancient trinkets.

When they saw a piece of pottery peeping above the surface they tore up the ground with their hands, pulled the burial jar or coffin to pieces, scattered the bones of the dead, and appropriated such poor relics as they might find in the way either of ornaments or pottery utensils.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 75 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n106/mode/1up

During the few days while the plan was in preparation, we were occupied in building our camp. For this purpose bricks were needed, and workmen were sent out to gather them wherever they could be found upon the surface of the ground.

Some of the men engaged in this search found a brick structure just appearing above the earth in a gully beneath the camp eastward, and proceeded on their own responsibility to excavate the structure and remove the bricks.

Some of the bricks which they brought in were inscribed.

This led to an investigation of the source of supply, and induced us to commence excavations at the point where brickwork had been discovered containing inscribed bricks.

This brickwork proved to be part of a tomb made of bricks taken from various structures, chiefly on the Temple Hill, prominent among which were bricks of Ur-Gur, Ishme-Dagan, and Ashurbanipal.

In this tomb was found a slipper-shaped clay coffin, covered with a blue glass enamel, and decorated with figures representing a woman from the waist and upward, but terminating in arabesque below.

This was broken into two pieces, which were lying separated and at an angle the one toward the other.

There was a skeleton in the coffin, and outside of the coffin on the floor were bones indicating other burials.

There were in the tomb, further, a green dish, a broken clay horse with rider ( an indication of Parthian origin), a small stone meal-grinder, and a quantity of colored beads, chiefly glass.

Nippur or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates
University of Pennsylvania Babylonian Expedition 1888-90
Volume II – Page 172 – John Punnett Peters – 1897

https://archive.org/details/cu31924082478979/page/n223/mode/1up

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11 Responses to Nippur and The Great Trench

  1. Tim,
    The Arab horizon might be the eruption of Santorini ? I’m playing around with the idea it and the Maunder/Dalton minima might be volcanically related. Just a thought.

  2. malagabay says:

    Louis,

    Not impossible given the size of the narrative distortions.

    The Maunder Minimum has a definite volcanic component.

    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/12/03/schrodingers-sunspots/

    Santorini is dated to about 1600 BC by radiocarbon dating.

    Uncalibrated that looks like 1338 BC on the Intcal13 curve.

    Archaeological evidence, based on the established chronology of Bronze Age Mediterranean cultures, dates the eruption to around 1500 BC.

    These dates, however, conflict with radiocarbon dating which indicates that the eruption occurred at about 1645–1600 BC.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santorini#Dating_of_the_Bronze_Age_eruption

    That’s about 800 years away from the 539 BC Fall of Babylon.

    On the other hand:

    Santorini [plus or minus Teide] would help explain the smothering of the cities and landscape…

    On Santorini, a deposit of white tephra thrown from the eruption is found lying up to 60 m (200 ft) thick, overlying the soil marking the ground level before the eruption, and forming a layer divided into three fairly distinct bands indicating different phases of the eruption.

    Archaeological discoveries in 2006 by a team of international scientists revealed that the Santorini event was much more massive than previously thought; it expelled 61 cubic kilometres (15 cu mi) of magma and rock into the Earth’s atmosphere, compared to previous estimates of only 39 cubic kilometres (9.4 cu mi) in 1991, producing an estimated 100 cubic kilometres (24 cu mi) of tephra.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santorini#Minoan_eruption

    Mount Teide is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Stratovolcano atop basalt shield volcano

    If measured from the ocean floor, it is at 7,500 m (24,600 ft) the fourth-highest volcano in the world, and is described by UNESCO and NASA as Earth’s third-tallest volcanic structure.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teide

    See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/01/19/the-deluge/

    Overall: I would hang on to those thoughts if I were you.
    Tim

  3. Patrick Donnelly says:

    A massive amount of charge, injected into the planets, will cause expansion of the planet due to pressure increases. Exchanges of charge may then occur between atmosphere and surface and even other planets, usually as they are at their closest or in line with the Sun at one end. Earthquakes, volcanoes, superstorms and perhaps crust slips will occur.

    These will be nothing like the events of the Fall from Heaven, aka TN pronounced SSSSSSNN, as in the hissing of a snake.

  4. Plenty to comment on here:
    “Terrestrial photography supports catastrophic change.” There have been periodic catastrophes, as indicated in several proxies, yet rarely linked chronologically. For this instance one can here start with 3200bce (Piora Oscillation), a time of great seismic changes, later followed by the 2345bce event (earth tilt change, which changed the appearance of the heavens). Both were times of destruction as noted by Claude Schaeffer, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Fr%C3%A9d%C3%A9ric-Armand_Schaeffer

    It has been an ongoing search of mine for tell-tales of such events. I link to one that shows correlations from unrelated sources. The link goes further back in time, which time does not show in Mesopotamian history (Thorkild Jacobsen said the 4th Millennium in Mesopotamian archaeology is conspicuous by its absence). The link: https://melitamegalithic.wordpress.com/2018/04/24/searching-evidence-2/

    The Akkadians, speaking a Semitic tongue, are said to have appeared in Mesopotamia post 3000bce, from unknown regions, eventually mixing with an earlier Sumerian people; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akkadian_Empire . That occurred at about the same time an evident exodus began of inhabitants whose country of origin experienced a major tectonic rotation, and a second major exodus after the 2345bce event. A commonality seems to exist, based on mathematics, a particular medical trait, a very ancient culture, and possibly language.
    But early days here. My point is that we have not yet even started to scratch at the surface to uncover history. However the proxies give their own interpretation of the passage of time.

    See also https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227538423_A_major_widespread_climatic_change_around_5300_cal_yr_BP_at_the_time_of_the_Alpine_Iceman

  5. Tim, thanks, and if Gunnar’s revision of Bronze age time is applied? One also needs to find a source for all the desert sand in northern Africa – I suspect those are also volcanic. The German Plain might have been a related volcanic deposit associated with the German maars, as both regions seem to be represented by extensive loess/sand deposits overlying “roman” structures.

  6. johnm33 says:

    Both the Mongols and Tamerlane conquered this area later, and both thought that growing crops was a waste of good grassland, I understand that once they’d overgrazed the area they abandoned it to desert and some moved up to the grasslands in ‘Turkey’. So there would have been substantial later erosion coming downstream to add to the depth of cover.

  7. Pingback: Armageddon Lacunae | CraigM350

  8. craigm350 says:

    Tim – this started as a comment but ended up as a near 7k word article.

    https://craigm350.wordpress.com/2020/03/09/armageddon-lacunae/

    The history of Megiddo is ripe for digging. Hopefully the links and extensive ‘black layer’ quotes are of use. I’ve kept away from images but sure someone else will find lots of interest in the early 20thC excavation reports.

    I’m now seeing what comes up for the Roman 3rdC Church just by Megiddo. Quite a few anomalies. More to follow…

  9. malagabay says:

    Thank you.
    Keep up the good work.
    Tim

  10. craigm350 says:

    age: biblewalks.com/Megiddo

    Thank you and you are welcome Tim. I just added an addendum:

    Whilst researching for more recent news on Megiddo church I came across our old friend, Israel Finklestein:

    Their team has used modern radiocarbon dating and laser-assisted distance measurements to precisely date and record the many layers of history on the tel, including monuments once thought to have been built in the era of King Solomon.

    These, Finkelstein says, can now be attributed to the later era of Ahab, king of the northern kingdom of Israel in the 9th century BC.

    The most important things was to date things accurately.

    ‘One way is to date according to Biblical verses, and one way is to date according to radiocarbon studies. Biblical verses, with all due respect, are always problematic because there are questions regarding their author, their goals, the ideology behind the author and so on and so forth.’

    Israeli prison to join Armageddon’s list of ancient ruins | Reuters

    8th August 2018

    One could argue about that carbon dates, with all due respect, are always problematic because there are questions regarding their author, their goals, the ideology behind the author and so on and so forth.

  11. Pingback: Arabian Horizon: Battle of Yarmouk | MalagaBay

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