Dugongs and Manatees are Inflating Earth survivors.
Dugongs are “strictly herbivorous” marine mammals related to manatees.
The dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal.
It is one of four living species of the order Sirenia, which also includes three species of manatees.
It is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongidae; its closest modern relative, Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas), was hunted to extinction in the 18th century.
The dugong is the only strictly herbivorous marine mammal.
Sirenians are thought to have a 50-million-year-old fossil record (early Eocene-recent). They attained modest diversity during the Oligocene and Miocene, but subsequently declined as a result of climatic cooling, oceanographic changes, and human interference.
Manatees are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows.
They measure up to 4.0 metres (13.1 ft) long, weigh as much as 590 kilograms (1,300 lb), and have paddle-like flippers.
Manatees’ other name, sea cows, comes from the fact that they are slow plant-eaters, peaceful and similar to cows on land.
They often graze on water plants in tropical seas.
Manatees are aquatic ambassadors for the Inflating Earth.
Manatees inhabit the shallow, marshy coastal areas and rivers
the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (T. manatus, West Indian manatee),
the Amazon basin (T. inunguis, Amazonian manatee),
and West Africa (T. senegalensis, West African manatee).
West Indian manatees prefer warmer temperatures and are known to congregate in shallow waters.
They frequently migrate through brackish water estuaries to freshwater springs.
They cannot survive below 15 °C (60 °F).
Their natural source for warmth during winter is warm, spring-fed rivers.
The dwarf manatee (Trichechus pygmaeus, or mistakenly Trichechus bernhardi) is a possible species of manatee found in the freshwater habitats of the Amazon, though restricted to one tributary of the Aripuanã River.
To resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western Atlantic region. Fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Columbia, Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil.
Despite the manatee’s ability to move thousands of kilometers along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts.
These findings are consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization.
Phylogeography of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus Manatus): How Many Populations and How Many Taxa?
A I Garcia-Rodriguez, B W Bowen, D Domning, A Mignucci-Giannoni, M Marmontel, A Montoya-Ospina, B Morales-Vela, M Rudin, R K Bonde, P M McGuire
Mol Ecol. 1998 Sep;7(9):1137-49.
Dugongs are also aquatic ambassadors for the Inflating Earth.
The dugong is the only sirenian in its range, which spans the waters of some 40 countries and territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific.
The dugong is largely dependent on seagrass communities for subsistence and is thus restricted to the coastal habitats which support seagrass meadows, with the largest dugong concentrations typically occurring in wide, shallow, protected areas such as bays, mangrove channels, the waters of large inshore islands and inter-reefal waters.
The northern waters of Australia between Shark Bay and Moreton Bay are believed to be the dugong’s contemporary stronghold.
The dugong has been hunted for thousands of years for its meat and oil.
Traditional hunting still has great cultural significance in several countries in its modern range, particularly northern Australia and the Pacific Islands.
The dugong’s current distribution is fragmented, and many populations are believed to be close to extinction.
An Inflating Earth where the inland seas drained away into oceanic basins.
This approach suggests the dramatic drop in sea level represents the draining of Inland Seas into the Ocean Basins as they formed on the surface of the Inflating Earth.
The curved drainage channels around the Plug Hole of the Sea show where the waters of the inland seas swirled down the drain into the Atlantic Basin.
An Inflating Earth where the drained inland seas left behind fossils.
Whales of the Desert – Gabriel Mikhail – 17 April 2011
An Inflating Earth where the drained inland seas left behind stranded seals.
This is especially true for the populations of harbour seals that currently inhabit three freshwater lakes that are “about 150 km east of Hudson Bay”.
There is a similar situation in the lakes east of the Baltic Sea where two subspecies of ringed seals are found in freshwater lakes that were supposedly buried under deep ice.
An Inflating Earth where the drained inland seas also stranded river dolphins.
The Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), also known as the boto, bufeo or pink river dolphin, is a species of toothed whale classified in the family Iniidae.
Three subspecies are currently recognized:
I. g. geoffrensis (Amazon river dolphin),
I. g. boliviensis (Bolivian river dolphin)
I. g. humboldtiana (Orinoco river dolphin)
while position of
Araguaian river dolphin (I. Araguaiaensis) within the clade is still unclear.
The three subspecies are distributed in the Amazon basin, the upper Madeira River in Bolivia, and the Orinoco basin, respectively.
The Amazon river dolphin is the largest species of river dolphin, with adult males reaching 185 kilograms (408 lb) in weight, and 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length.
Adults acquire a pink color, more prominent in males, giving it its nickname “pink river dolphin”.
The boundaries are set by waterfalls, such as the Xingu and Tapajós rivers in Brazil, as well as very shallow water.
A series of rapids and waterfalls in the Madeira River have isolated one population, recognized as the subspecies I. g. boliviensis, in the southern part of the Amazon basin in Bolivia.
An Inflating Earth where the drained inland seas left stingrays stranded.
Stingrays are a group of sea rays, which are cartilaginous fish related to sharks.
They are classified in the suborder Myliobatoidei of the order Myliobatiformes and consist of eight families:
Hexatrygonidae (sixgill stingray),
Plesiobatidae (deepwater stingray),
Urotrygonidae (round rays),
Dasyatidae (whiptail stingrays),
Potamotrygonidae (river stingrays),
Gymnuridae (butterfly rays), and
Myliobatidae (eagle rays).
Unlike other … freshwater stingrays … Styracura are found in the tropical West Atlantic and East Pacific.
River stingrays or freshwater stingrays are Neotropical freshwater fishes of the family Potamotrygonidae in the order Myliobatiformes, one of the four orders of batoids, cartilaginous fishes related to sharks. … There are more than 35 species in five genera.
They are native to tropical and subtropical northern, central and eastern South America, living in rivers that drain into the Caribbean, and into the Atlantic as far south as the Río de la Plata in Argentina.
A few generalist species are widespread, but most are more restricted and typically native to a single river basin.
The greatest species richness can be found in the Amazon, especially the Rio Negro, Tapajós, and Tocantins basins (each home to 8–10 species).
The range of several species is limited by waterfalls.
The whiptail stingrays are a family, the Dasyatidae, of rays in the order Myliobatiformes.
They are found worldwide in tropical to temperate marine waters, and a number of species have also penetrated into fresh water in Africa, Asia, and Australia.
Members of this family have flattened pectoral fin discs that range from oval to diamond-like in shape.
But, as always:
Review the evidence and draw your own conclusions.