Lignite miners have shredded Gradualist Settled Science.
The modern mainstream has crafted a collection of crass cop-outs that desperately attempt to explain-away the disappearance of vast swathes of European trees that they’ve wilfully failed to acknowledge are buried beneath sand and gravel in lignite mines.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat. … Lignite begins as an accumulation of partially decayed plant material, or peat.
Lignite is low rank, or relatively unaltered (soft, or “brown”) coal, and is characterized by a brownish color and appearance that often resembles wood.
This lignite releases copious amounts of dissolved organic substances into groundwater.
USGS – Pliocene Lignite Coal from BEN Village
The total of these evidences indicates the alternate and intermittent periods of violent erosion such as would dismember animal remains and splinter trees, interspersed with other periods of comparative quiescence so as to allow the growth of “forests” and peat bogs in the same area.
Archaeological Aspects of the Alaska Muck Deposits
Frank C Hibben – 1941
New Mexico Anthropologist, Volume 5, Number 4
A lignite mine in Romania reveals more information about the “violent” episodes followed by periods of “comparative quiescence”.
○ The first “violent” episode is associated with the thickest layer of lignite.
○ Subsequent layers of lignite suggest fairly uniform periods of “quiescence”.
○ The 40-70 year guesstimate for periods of “quiescence” appears reasonable.
○ The first layer of lignite is covered by the thickest layer of loess.
○ Subsequent layers of loess become thinner and thinner.
The mainstream has failed to acknowledge a Roman Aqueduct [dated to 224 AD] found buried under seven metres of Miocene sand and gravel in a lignite mine outside Cologne.
Near Cologne (Rhineland), to give an example, in the lignite area of the Elsbachtal, the gigantic mechanical diggers used to clear away the debris covering the precious coal, a small Roman aqueduct, dated to 224 CE, was brought to light after 7 m of sand and gravel had been removed.
Toppling of Rome’s Obelisks and Aqueducts – Ewald Ernst – August 2014
This Roman water works is not buried under colluvium, but under, ahem, Miocene stratigraphy.
It’s location in the cross section seems to be wee white features above the basal orange Devonian strata. I think, because no one seems to want to discuss this anachronism.
Drmno lignite mine [Kostolac, Serbia] is the scene of more shredding.
The City municipality of Kostolac is a town in Serbia and … is situated on the Danube river. … and home of thermal power plants and coal mines.
The remains of the Roman capital of the province of Moesia Superior Viminacium are located … some 2 km to the east of Kostolac.
Viminacium … dates back to the 1st century AD, and at its peak it is believed to have had 40,000 inhabitants, making it one of the biggest cities of that time. It lies on the Roman road Via Militaris. Viminacium was devastated by Huns in the 5th century, but was later rebuilt by Justinian. It was completely destroyed with the arrival of Slavs in the 6th century.
In 2009 the skeleton of a Steppe Mammoth was found in a “crouching posture” at a depth of 27 metres in riverbed sediments at the rim of the the Drmno lignite mine near Kostolac.
The Kostolac mammoth was discovered in 2009 in Pleistocene deposits adjacent to the Drmno open-cast lignite mine in the Serbian Danube Basin.
The find is also remarkable for the articulated condition of the skeleton, the animal occupying a crouching posture which is probably little-altered from its original death position.
This and the depositional environment of the skeleton, a broad, fast-flowing river, suggest that the animal died in relatively shallow water and was very rapidly buried in river sediments.
Based on the known European record of typical (large-sized) M. trogontherii of this kind, the age of the Kostolac skeleton and its enclosing sediments is between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma.
The mammoth skeleton was discovered on the north-east rim of the Drmno pit, the youngest and largest of the open pits, near the mouth of the Mlava River, on low hilly land that rises over the flat landscape of the alluvial plains.
The mammoth was found at 44º 43′ 50” N, 21º 14′ 21” E, Gauss-Krueger grid reference 4 954 024, 7 518 937, at a height of approximately 58 m above mean sea level, and a depth of 27 m below the modern surface.
A Skeleton of ‘Steppe’ Mammoth from Drmno, near Kostolac, Serbia
Adrian M Lister, Vesna Dimitrijevic, Zoran Markovic, Slobodan Knezevic, Dick Mol
Quaternary International 276-277 (2012) 129-144
The official dating of the Kostolac Mammoth [and its enclosing sediments] is somewhere between 1.0 and 0.4 million years ago.
On the other hand:
Malaga Bay suggests the Kostolac Mammoth died around 1300-1400 CE.
The recalibration of the 2017 Alaskan muck assemblage adjusts the original range of 8,000-50,000 years BP down to 520-975 years BP aka 1430-975 CE.
The recalibration indicates the Younger Dryas is the Hecker Horizon.
And the Hecker Horizon represents the final megafauna extinction event.
There the unresolved dating issue rested until a few months ago.
In March 2020 a “flat-bottomed river vessel” built using “Roman techniques” was found “buried in the mud of an ancient riverbed” in the Drmno lignite pit.
Coal miners in Serbia recently dug up an unexpected surprise: three probable Roman-era ships, buried in the mud of an ancient riverbed for at least 1,300 years.
The largest is a flat-bottomed river vessel 15 meters (49 feet) long, which seems to have been built with Roman techniques.
Two smaller boats, each carved out from a single tree trunk, match ancient descriptions of dugout boats used by Slavic groups to row across the Danube River and attack the Roman frontier.
The Kostolac surface mine lies near the ancient Roman city of Viminacium, once a provincial capital and the base for a squadron of Roman warships on the Danube River.
“The [largest] ship was seriously damaged by the mining equipment,” archaeologist Miomir Korac, director of the Archaeological Institute and head of the Viminacium Science Project, told Ars in an email. “Approximately 35 percent to 40 percent of the ship was damaged. But the archaeological team collected all the parts, and we should be able to reconstruct it almost in full.”
Probable Roman Shipwrecks Unearthed at a Serbian Coal Mine
Ars Technica – Kiona N Smith – 8 April 2020
Archeologists have found an ancient boat near the Roman Viminacium site at a place where the Mlava river flowed into the Danube. … The remains of the boat were found by an excavator at the Drmno open pit coal mine.
Serbian archeologists find ancient boat at Viminacium
N1 News – Beta – 6 March 2020
Pronađen brod u blizini Viminacijuma
NOVA S – 16 March 2020
Hat Tip: CW This one has “MalagaBay” written all over it.
This discovery of a “flat-bottomed river vessel” built using “Roman techniques” in riverbed mud is somewhat embarrassing because this riverbed also contained the Kostolac Mammoth that’s meant to have died between 1.0 and 0.4 million years ago.
Uryadovy Courier reported that coal miners in Serbia recently dug up an unexpected surprise: three probable Roman-era ships, buried in the mud of an ancient riverbed for at least 1,300 years.
The three ships lay atop a 15-meter deep layer of gravel, buried under seven meters of silt and clay, which preserved them for centuries in remarkably good condition—or did until the miners’ earthmoving equipment dug into the steep slope to excavate for the mine.
Roman Shipwrecks Unearthed at a Serbian Coal Mine
Steel Guru – Coal News – 09 April 2020
It’s since been announced the “Roman ship” is dated to the “3rd century AD”.
As the sun sank over a vast opencast coal mine in eastern Serbia earlier this month, a small crane eased the front half of a Roman ship from the steep sides of the pit.
An excavator cutting through the coal rich soil had pulled out some muddy timber weeks before, but coronavirus restrictions had meant the retrieval had to wait.
Lead archaeologist Miomir Korac said the vessel dated from the 3rd century AD when Viminacium was the capital of the Roman province of Moesia Superior and near a tributary of the Danube river.
Coal mine in Serbia gives up new Roman treasure
Reuters – 29 May 2020
The “3rd century AD” dating of the “Roman ship” [and by definition the Kostolac Mammoth] supports Malaga Bay’s alignment: 225 AD = 1395 CE.
Perhaps the minimum at 1395 CE in Leona Libby’s Old Japanese Cedar Tree chronology aligns with the 225 AD minimum in the Roman Denarius Purity chronology.
The 1,170 year difference aligns the Antonine Plague with the Black Death i.e. 180 AD + 1,170 years = 1350 CE.
The “Roman” boat is possibly a felucca and it’s “lateen sail” appears appropriate for the period based upon the 1213 AD dating of the San Giovanni Evangelista [Ravenna] mosaics.
The large ship had a single deck with at least six pairs of oars, along with fittings for a type of triangular sail called a lateen sail.
Probable Roman Shipwrecks Unearthed at a Serbian Coal Mine
Ars Technica – Kiona N Smith – 8 April 2020
The design of the boat suggests it’s “Roman” appellation is a synonym for “Byzantine Greek” which [in it’s turn] is a synonym for Middle Eastern.
Sultanate of Rûm … 1077–1308
The name Rûm was a synonym for Eastern Romans, that is the Byzantine Greeks, as it remains in modern Turkish. It derives from the Arabic name for ancient Rome, ar-Rūm, itself a loan from Koine Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, “Romans, citizens of the Eastern Roman Empire”.
Flemish is a synonym for Norman and Roman brickwork.
The Flemish “first wave” appears to be a synonym for Norman migration from North Africa and/or the Middle East.
A lateen (from French latine, meaning “Latin”) or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction.
Felucca, a type of vessel used in the Mediterranean for coasters or fishing-boats.
It is a long, low and narrow undecked vessel, built for speed, and propelled by oars or sails. The sails are lateen-shaped and carried on one or two masts placed far forward.
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 10 – Felucca
Dhow is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region. Historians are divided as to whether the dhow was invented by Arabs or Indians.
The Drmno lignite [that contains significant amounts of ash and bitumen] provides strong support for Immanuel Velikovsky’s concept of catastrophic close encounters with celestial objects such as Venus, Mars, Comet Halley, Comet Tempel–Tuttle, et al.
The objective of the study was to determine the origin and to reconstruct the geological evolution of lignites from the Drmno field (Kostolac Basin, Serbia).
Coal from the Drmno field is typical humic coal. Peat-forming vegetation dominated by decay of resistant gymnosperm (coniferous) plants, followed by prokaryotic organisms and angiosperms.
Considering that the organic matter of the Drmno lignites was deposited at the same time, in a relatively constant climate, it could be supposed that climate probably had only a small impact on peatification.
Drmno lignite field (Kostolac basin, Serbia)
Ksenija Stojanović, Dragana Životić, Aleksandra Šajnović, Olga Cvetković, Hans Peter Nytoft, and Georg Scheeder
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society – January 2012
Kepler’s ~ 800 year Great Mutation Cycle appears to have defined the shape of Leona Libby’s Old Japanese Cedar Tree chronology during the 2nd millennium.
Retro-calculations suggest Earth experienced a close encounter with Comet Halley in 1378.
In 1933, S. Kanda deduced that the comet of 1366 was Tempel–Tuttle, which was confirmed by Joachim Schubart in 1965. On 26 October 1366, the comet passed 0.0229 AU (3,430,000 km; 2,130,000 mi) from Earth.
It is the parent body of the Leonid meteor shower.
The orbit of 55P/Tempel–Tuttle intersects that of Earth nearly exactly, hence streams of material ejected from the comet during perihelion passes do not have to spread out over time to encounter Earth.
In view of this new evidence, the mucks and their well-preserved but highly disrupted and damaged vertebrate and botanical remains are reinterpreted in part as blast deposits that resulted from several episodes of airbursts and ground/ice impacts within the northern hemisphere during Late Pleistocene time (~46–11 ka B.P.). Such a scenario might be explained by encounters with cometary debris in Earth-crossing orbits (Taurid Complex) that was generated by fragmentation of a large short-period comet within the inner Solar System.
Impact-related microspherules in Late Pleistocene Alaskan and Yukon “muck” deposits signify recurrent episodes of catastrophic emplacement
J T Hagstrum, R B Firestone, A West, J C Weaver & T E Bunch
Nature – Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 16620 – 2017
Halley’s Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years.
Immanuel Velikovsky (1895-1979) …
His books use comparative mythology and ancient literary sources (including the Old Testament) to argue that Earth suffered catastrophic close contacts with other planets (principally Venus and Mars) in ancient history.
Periodic close contacts with a “cometary Venus” (which had been ejected from Jupiter) had caused the Exodus events (c. 1500 BCE) and Joshua’s subsequent “sun standing still” (Joshua 10:12–13) incident. Periodic close contacts with Mars had caused havoc in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE.
But, as always:
Review the evidence and draw your own conclusions.