Cape Bojador and The Burning Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is a massive mainstream continuity conundrum.

Atlantic Seaboard Seafarers
The age of the North Atlantic Ocean is a fairly flexible concept but Gradualist Settled Scientists all agree it’s many millions of years old.

Geologically, the Northern Atlantic is the area delimited to the south by two conjugate margins, Newfoundland and Iberia, and to the north by the Arctic Eurasian Basin.

Seafloor spreading led to the extension of the crust and formations of troughs and sedimentary basins. The Rockall Trough opened between 105 and 84 million years ago although along the rift failed along with one leading into the Bay of Biscay.

Spreading began opening the Labrador Sea around 61 million years ago, continuing until 36 million years ago.

Gradualist Historians state straight-faced that Atlantic seaboard seafarers in Western Europe didn’t explore the Atlantic before the Hecker Horizon.

Medieval mariners only reported what’s accessible and survivable.


Chapter I
The Portuguese Explorers (1394-1580)

Up to this time men had traveled only over the lands or on the rivers or inland seas.

The Story of Columbus and Magellan
Thomas Bonaventure Lawler – 1905

Gradualist Historians have a uncomfortable choice.

They can start with:

Ptolemy’s Fortunate Isles [aka Canary Islands] in an Atlantic Sea.

The gazetteer section of Ptolemy’s work provided latitude and longitude coordinates for all the places and geographical features in the work. … His Prime Meridian ran through the Fortunate Isles, the westernmost land recorded, at around the position of El Hierro in the Canary Islands.

The Fortunate Isles or Isles of the Blessed were semi-legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean, variously treated as a simple geographical location and as a winterless earthly paradise inhabited by the heroes of Greek mythology.

Flavius Philostratus’ Life of Apollonius of Tyana (v.2) says,

“And they also say that the Islands of the Blessed are to be fixed by the limits of Libya where they rise towards the uninhabited promontory.”

In this geography Libya was considered to extend westwards through Mauretania

“as far as the mouth of the river Salex, some nine hundred stadia, and beyond that point a further distance which no one can compute, because when you have passed this river Libya is a desert which no longer supports a population”.

Plutarch, who refers to the “fortunate isles” several times in his writings, locates them firmly in the Atlantic in his vita of Sertorius. Sertorius, when struggling against a chaotic civil war in the closing years of the Roman Republic, had tidings from mariners of certain islands a few days’ sail from Hispania:

where the air was never extreme, which for rain had a little silver dew, which of itself and without labour, bore all pleasant fruits to their happy dwellers, till it seemed to him that these could be no other than the Fortunate Islands, the Elysian Fields.

It’s possible Ptolemy’s Geography was last updated in 1320 CE.

The 1,170 year difference aligns the Antonine Plague with the Black Death
i.e. 180 AD + 1,170 years = 1350 CE.


The Geography … is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography … written by Claudius Ptolemy in Greek at Alexandria around AD 150

Or they can start with:

A misaligned medieval Lanzarote Madeira.

The first visit by a European to the Canary Islands since antiquity was by Genoese captain Lanceloto Malocello traditionally dated 1312 (but possibly a little later, between 1318–1325).

Lancelotto Malocello .. is credited with the rediscovery of the Canary Islands in 1312; the island first appeared on a European map of Angelino Dulcert (the Dulcert Atlas) in 1339 under the name “Ínsula de Lançarote Mallucellus” (island of Lancelotto Malocello), later shortened to “Lanzarote”.


Angelino Dulcert (fl. 1339), probably also the same person known as Angelino de Dalorto (fl. 1320s), and whose real name was probably Angelino de Dulceto or Dulceti or possibly Angelí Dolcet, was an Italian-Majorcan cartographer.

The 1339 Dulcert map is notable for giving the first modern depiction of the island of Lanzarote, one of the Canary Islands, as Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus, a reference to the Genoese navigator Lancelotto Malocello, and affixes a Genoese shield to mark the island (a custom which will be retained by future mapmakers).

Madeira … is an archipelago situated in the North Atlantic Ocean, in a region known as Macaronesia, just under 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the north of the Canary Islands and 520 kilometres (320 mi) west of Morocco.

Madeira is geographically located in the African Tectonic Plate, even though the archipelago is culturally, economically and politically European.

The East-West longitudinal separation between Ponta dos Rosais and Cape Bojador has increased by 7.66% in the last 374 years.


Then they can continue with their saga of Norman seafarers and the Kingdom of Castile conquering the Canary Islands after the Hecker Horizon.

The Norman expedition set off from La Rochelle and stopped off in Galicia and Cádiz before arriving in Lanzarote in the summer of 1402.

Pacifying the island took until 1404 and the conquest of Fuerteventura recommenced at the end of that year. However, the two commanders acted separately, each one fortifying his own domain (the castles of Rico Roque and Valtarajal). The conquest of the island was completed in 1405 with the surrender of the native kings of the island.

The conquest of El Hierro took place in 1405.

The second phase is known as the Conquista Señorial castellana and was carried out by Castilian nobles whose appropriation of the land was mediated through purchase, cession and marriage. This phase included the land conquered in the first phase and also the island of La Gomera and lasted until 1450.

The Conquista Realenga

Conquest of Gran Canaria (1478-83)

Conquest of La Palma (1492-93)

Conquest of Tenerife (1494-96)

Amazon US:
Amazon UK:

The Norman storyline appears to be [fraudulent] Iberian one-upmanship.

Firstly, the sole storyline source was [officially] written 85 years after the conquest of Lanzarote and it clearly contains a visual continuity error.


Le Canarien (The Canary) is a chronicle and campaign diary of the expedition to conquer the Canary Islands organized in the early 15th century by the Norman Baron Jean IV de Béthencourt in association with the Pictish seneschal Gadifer de La Salle.

Secondly, it’s unlikely the Normans needed to discover or conquer the Canaries because Norman and Guanche are synonyms for North African.

The Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

In 2017, the first genome-wide data from the Guanches confirmed a North African origin and that they were genetically most similar to ancient North African Berber peoples of the nearby North African mainland.

Flemish is a synonym for Norman and Roman brickwork.

The Flemish “first wave” appears to be a synonym for Norman migration from North Africa and/or the Middle East.


Thirdly, the Portuguese are lauded as the pioneers of Atlantic exploration.

The caravel was a small, highly manoeuvrable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean. The lateen sails gave it speed and the capacity for sailing windward (beating). Caravels were used by the Portuguese and Castilians for the oceanic exploration voyages during the 15th and 16th centuries in the Age of Discovery.


Infante Dom Henrique of Portugal, Duke of Viseu (1394-1460), better known as Prince Henry the Navigator, was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion. Through his administrative direction, he is regarded as the main initiator of what would be known as the Age of Discovery.

European exploration outside the Mediterranean started with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Azores in 1419 and 1427 respectively, then the coast of Africa after 1434 until the establishment of the sea route to India in 1498 by Vasco da Gama; … circumnavigation of the globe between 1519–1522 by the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan (completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano and Enrique of Malacca).

The Savage Islands or Selvagens Islands are a small Portuguese [1438] archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean, 280 kilometres (175 mi) south of Madeira, and 165 kilometres (105 mi) north of the Canary Islands.

Either way:

It’s difficult for the mainstream to explain why Atlantic seaboard seafarers [and especially the English bowlers] took so long to acquire the cojones for Atlantic exploration.

Anthony Jenkinson (1529 – 1610/1611) was born at Market Harborough, Leicestershire. He was one of the first Englishmen to explore Muscovy and present-day Russia.

Sir Martin Frobisher (c. 1535 – 1594) was an English seaman and privateer who made three voyages to the New World looking for the North-west Passage.

Sir Francis Drake (c. 1540 – 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, naval officer and explorer.

Sir Walter Raleigh (c. 1552 (or 1554) – 1618), also spelled Ralegh, was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.

Explorers from 1551-1600 – Enchanted Learning

One possibility is a shortage of suitable shipbuilding timber.

In England, the English oak has assumed the status of a national emblem.

‘The Royal Oak’ is the third most popular pub name in Britain (541 in 2007) and has been the name of eight major Royal Navy warships. The naval associations are strengthened by the fact that oak was the main construction material for sailing warships.

The Royal Navy was often described as ‘The Wooden Walls of Old England’ (a paraphrase of the Delphic Oracle) and the Navy’s official quick march is “Heart of Oak”.

Another possibility is the lack of an Atlantic seaboard.



The Cape Bojador Barrier
Getting past Cape Bojador was a major problem for “superstitious” seafarers [especially those that didn’t return home] who thought “sea monsters” and the “edge of the world” lay beyond.

Until Henry’s time, Cape Bojador remained the most southerly point known to Europeans on the desert coast of Africa.

Superstitious seafarers held that beyond the cape lay sea monsters and the edge of the world.

Cape Bojador … It is said that it is also known as the “Bulging Cape”, although no references to this usage are to be found in standard geographical references.

The Cape’s name in Arabic is “Abu Khatar”, meaning “the father of danger”.

The disappearance of numerous European vessels that had made prior attempts to round the Cape despite its violent seas, led some to suggest the presence of sea monsters.

They thought the ocean was burning past Cape Bojador

Chapter IV
From Bojador To Cape Verde

From 1421, if not earlier, Henry despatched ships every year to explore the coast of West Africa beyond Cape Non, of which it was said, ‘he who passes Cape Non will return or not’, indicating that they held it to be the limit of possible navigation.

These expeditions were not led by ordinary men, but by picked retainers of his who had achieved distinction in some field of action.

Nevertheless Cape Bojador, the bulging Cape, proved an impassable barrier, and the mariners, who coasted by day and anchored at night, contented themselves with raiding the coast of Barbary and the kingdom of Granada for booty to pay their expenses.

The Portuguese Pioneers – Edgar Prestage – 1933

Chapter I
The Portuguese Explorers (1394-1580)

The great ocean, it was thought, was the home of evil spirits and monsters.

Whirlpools would sink the vessels if they sailed far to the south.

On the west coast of Africa was a point of land where the waters were generally very rough. As there were many rocks scattered about in the sea along this coast, it was thought that any vessel which tried to pass here would be wrecked.

The ocean current was said to be so strong that no ship could sail against it.

To this point of land was given the name cape Bojador, which means ” outstretched,” because it was believed that the rocks and currents stretched themselves out here to seize any vessels that might try to sail by.

The Story of Columbus and Magellan
Thomas Bonaventure Lawler – 1905

The curved drainage channels around the Plug Hole of the Sea show where the waters of the inland seas swirled down the drain into the Atlantic Basin.


The gradualist mainstream find it difficult to understand how Cape Bojador could have acquired such a “fearsome reputation”.

The reason for the fearsome reputation of the cape is not immediately obvious from maps, where it appears as the south-western point of a slight hump in the coastline, bounded at its other end by Cabo Falso Bojador, ten nautical miles to the northeast.

Nor does what is said in the Sailing Directions sound terribly formidable:

“Cabo Falso Bojador is formed by several tall sand dunes

A rocky shoal, with a least depth of 4.8m, extends up to 3 miles N of the cape. A rocky patch, with a least depth of 8m, lies about 2 miles W of the cape. The coast between Cabo Falso Bojador and Cabo Bojador, 10 miles SW, consists of a sandy beach fringed by rocks.

Clumps of scrub top the sand dunes which stand about 0.5 mile inland of this beach.
Heavy breakers have been observed along this coast at all times.

Cabo Bojador, a very low point, is located 9.5 miles SW of Cabo Falso Bojador and is bordered on the S side by black rocks.

From the N, the cape appears as a mass of red sand with a gradual slope towards the sea. From the W, the cape is difficult to identify, but from the S its extremity appears as a reef which dries in places and is marked by breakers even in calm weather.”

Their lack of understanding is difficult to comprehend.

Firstly, continental shelf boundaries became the “edge of the world” for seafarers when the inland seas drained away into the ocean basins.



Secondly, the evidence indicates “sea monsters” existed in the Current Era.

Curiously, dead Dorudon are found “in circles” as if they were trying to “bite their tails”.

The iconic Egyptian Ouroboros looks just like a dead Dorudon.


The Fortunate Isles … Pliny the Elder‘s Natural History adds …

“These islands, however, are greatly annoyed by the putrefying bodies of monsters, which are constantly thrown up by the sea”.

Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/24-79), called Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, a naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of emperor Vespasian.

Thirdly, the “Bulging Cape” appellation and the observation that “the ocean was burning” suggest Cape Bojador was volcanically active.

Cape Bojador … It is said that it is also known as the “Bulging Cape”, although no references to this usage are to be found in standard geographical references.

They thought the ocean was burning past Cape Bojador

Underwater volcano eruption observed off the coast of the Canary Islands – American Geophysical Union – 24 August 2017

Interestingly, the South American impact sites have a pronounced North East alignment.


One of the more unexpected objects found by Dallas Abbott in Layer B of the Tamarack Pond [Black Rock Forest, New York] core was a fragment of red coral from the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.


The Cape Bojador volcanic activity subsided between 1433 and 1434.

The discovery of a passable route around Cape Bojador, in 1434, by the Portuguese mariner Gil Eanes was considered a major breakthrough for European explorers and traders en route to Africa and later to India.

Eanes had made a previous attempt in 1433 which resulted in failure, but tried again under orders of Prince Henry the Navigator. Eanes was successful after the second expedition.

In 2018 the realm of Geomagnetism was disturbed by results showing Southern Africa performed a “coherent loop” of 360 degrees between [about] 425 and 1370 CE.


And the rest is [probably] history written by the victors.

The Cantino planisphere or Cantino world map is a manuscript Portuguese world map preserved at the Biblioteca Estense in Modena, Italy. It is named after Alberto Cantino, an agent for the Duke of Ferrara, who successfully smuggled it from Portugal to Italy in 1502.

But, as always:

Review the evidence and draw your own conclusions.

This entry was posted in Arabian Horizon, Books, British History, Cape Bojador, Catastrophism, Dallas Abbott, Dendrochronology, Earth, Geology, Hecker Horizon, History, Inflating Earth, Old Japanese Cedar Tree, Roman Chronology, Uniformitarianism, Water. Bookmark the permalink.

8 Responses to Cape Bojador and The Burning Ocean

  1. Yry says:

    Fascinating read once again, Tim
    For information, Mexicans living along their Pacific coast have been
    and are reporting a number of ‘Remo’ fish found dead on beaches
    these past ten days.

    These fish live only at great depths, never coming up to near surface
    level. They look decidedly like the Dorudons or giant Anacondas,
    sized an average 5 to 6m long, do they bite their own tail I have
    no idea.
    This all means in the end that the seabed there has become active
    and unstable according to the locals’ wisdom and they don’t like it.

    Thank you again, Yry

  2. malagabay says:

    Los regalecos, peces remo o peces sable (familia Regalecidae) son un grupo de dos géneros de peces lampriformes de hábitat marino, que puede hallarse en todas las regiones templadas y tropicales del globo.

    Oarfish are large, greatly elongated, pelagic lampriform fish belonging to the small family Regalecidae

    Found in all temperate to tropical oceans yet rarely seen, the oarfish family contains three species in two genera.

    One of these, the giant oarfish (Regalecus glesne), is the longest bony fish alive, growing up to 8 m (26 ft) in length.

    The occasional beachings of oarfish after storms, and their habit of lingering at the surface when sick or dying, make oarfish a probable source of many sea serpent tales.

    The oceanodromous Regalecus glesne is recorded as spawning off Mexico from July to December; all species are presumed to not guard their eggs, and release brightly coloured, buoyant eggs, up to six millimetres (0.24 in) across, which are incorporated into the zooplankton.

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  4. CW says:

    Another fascinating read… well done, Tim. I always wondered why it took the Portuguese so long to reach Cape Agulhas.

  5. malagabay says:

    Cape Agulhas is a rocky headland in Western Cape, South Africa.

    It is the geographic southern tip of the African continent and the beginning of the dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans according to the International Hydrographic Organization.

    Historically, the cape has been known to sailors as a major hazard on the traditional clipper route.

    The cape was named by Portuguese navigators, who called it Cabo das Agulhas—Portuguese for “Cape of Needles”—after noticing that around the year 1500 the direction of magnetic north (and therefore the compass needle) coincided with true north in the region.

    The sea off Cape Agulhas is notorious for winter storms and mammoth rogue waves, which can range up to 30 metres (100 ft) high and can sink even large ships.

    Over the past few hundred years it has been believed that around 150 ships have sunk around Agulhas.

  6. johnm33 says:

    On the second image is there any better geological method of catergorising the bands, what is it that’s distinctive in the rock? My own preference would be for four or fewer major events quickly followed by more trivial/less active periods then long periods of quiescence, but i’ve no idea how to interpret the geology. I’m thinking each major event would/could alter the underlying mantles chemistry thus leading to a different reaction come the next?

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