¿Is it time to lop lots of lovely noughts off the Earth’s age?
Once upon a time young ladies were taught how to spend plenty of daddy’s money by writing lots of lovely noughts in their cheque books.
Parker Pens – Television Advert – Late 1970s – Agency: CDP
Similarly, young gentlemen were taught how to waste plenty of precious time by writing lots of lovely noughts in their exercise books.
In the present state of science it is out of our power to state positively what must be the lowest limit of the age of the earth. But we cannot assume it to be much less, and it may possibly have been much more, than the 100 millions of years which Lord Kelvin was at one time willing to concede.
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 11 – Geology
Nowadays, people still enjoy writing lots of lovely noughts.
The Earth Scientists enlisted radiometric dating to add lots of lovely noughts onto the age of the Earth.
Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that Earth is about 4.54 billion years old [i.e. 4,540,000,000 years old].
The Earth Scientists added these lovely noughts onto the Earth’s age by calculating an age for the rocks that fall out of the sky.
The age of the Earth is estimated to be 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%).
This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples.
The development of the Geochron was mainly attributed to Clair Cameron Patterson’s application of Pb-Pb dating on meteorites in 1956.
The Pb ratios of three stony and two iron meteorites were measured.
The dating of meteorites would then help Patterson in determining not only the age of these meteorites but also the age of Earth’s formation.
Clair Cameron Patterson (1922-1995) was an American geochemist.
In collaboration with George Tilton, Patterson developed the uranium–lead dating method into lead–lead dating.
By using lead isotopic data from the Canyon Diablo meteorite, he calculated an age for the Earth of 4.55 billion years, which was a figure far more accurate than those that existed at the time, and one that has remained largely unchanged since 1956.
Lead (82Pb) has four stable isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.
Lead-204 is entirely a primordial nuclide and is not a radiogenic nuclide.
The three isotopes lead-206, lead-207, and lead-208 represent the ends of three decay chains: the uranium series (or radium series), the actinium series, and the thorium series, respectively; a fourth decay chain, the neptunium series, terminates with the thallium isotope 205Tl.
The three series terminating in lead represent the decay chain products of long-lived primordial 238U, 235U, and 232Th, respectively.
However, each of them also occurs, to some extent, as primordial isotopes that were made in supernovae, rather than radiogenically as daughter products.
The fixed ratio of lead-204 to the primordial amounts of the other lead isotopes may be used as the baseline to estimate the extra amounts of radiogenic lead present in rocks as a result of decay from uranium and thorium.
The Earth Scientists determined by “radiometric methods” that meteorites “have one age” after they assumed meteorites “formed at the same time”.
Within experimental error, meteorites have one age as determined by three independent radiometric methods.
The following assumptions are made concerning meteorites:
they were formed at the same time:
they existed as isolated and closed systems:
they originally contained lead of the same isotopic composition;
they contain uranium which has the same isotopic composition as that in the earth.
Age of Meteorites and the Earth – Claire Patterson
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta – Volume 10 – Issue 4 – October 1956
The analysis should involve a lot more than five sample meteorites that effectively provide only three data points for each linear trend.
It’s one thing to analyse the lead isotopes in five meteorites.
It’s another thing altogether to assume meteorites “contain uranium which has the same isotopic composition as that in the earth”.
This assumption is particularly egregious when terrestrial rocks show:
1) Lead isotopic abundances “vary greatly by sample”.
2) The percentages of lead and uranium vary greatly by sample.
It’s doubtful the [past or present] published natural abundances for the stable lead isotopes have a meaningful relationship with reality because it’s impossible to know whether the Canyon Diablo asteroid [or anything else] is a valid proxy for “cosmic abundance”.
The cosmic abundance of lead and uranium have been determined by studying the lead and uranium contents of meteoritic materials.
The relative primordial abundances of lead isotopes of mass 204, 206, 207, and 208 are found to be 1:9.4:10.3:29.2, respectively.
Concentration of Uranium and Lead and the Isotopic Composition of Lead in Meteoritic Material – C Patterson, H Brown, G Tilton, and M Inghram
Phys. Rev. 92, 1234 – 1 December 1953
In 1953, Brown brought [Clair Cameron] Patterson along with him to Caltech, where Patterson was able to build his own lab from scratch. In it he secured all points of entry for air and other contaminants. Patterson also acid cleaned all apparatuses and even distilled all of his chemicals shipped to him. In essence, he created one of the first clean rooms ever, in order to prevent lead contamination of his data.
He then was able to finish his work with the Canyon Diablo meteorite.
He used the mass spectrometer at the Argonne National Laboratory on isolated iron-meteorite lead to collect data on the abundance of lead isotopes.
The Canyon Diablo meteorites include the many fragments of the asteroid that created Barringer Crater (Meteor Crater), Arizona, United States.
The asteroid fell about 50,000 years ago.
Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact crater approximately 37 miles (60 km) east of Flagstaff and 18 miles (29 km) west of Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States.
Meteor Crater lies at an elevation of 5,640 ft (1,719 m) above sea level.
It is about 3,900 ft (1,200 m) in diameter, some 560 ft (170 m) deep, and is surrounded by a rim that rises 148 ft (45 m) above the surrounding plains.
The center of the crater is filled with 690–790 ft (210–240 m) of rubble lying above crater bedrock.
One of the interesting features of the crater is its squared-off outline, believed to be caused by existing regional jointing (cracks) in the strata at the impact site.
This is especially true for Lead-204 which the Earth Scientists [somehow or other] convinced themselves wasn’t produced by radioactive decay.
Lead-204 is entirely a primordial nuclide and is not a radiogenic nuclide.
A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.
Instead, the Earth Scientists [somehow or other] convinced themselves that Lead-204 existed before the Earth formed.
204Pb is entirely primordial, and is thus useful for estimating the fraction of the other lead isotopes in a given sample that are also primordial, since the relative fractions of the various primordial lead isotopes is constant everywhere.
In geochemistry, geophysics and nuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Undoubtedly, Earth Scientists would be better served using Tasseography to guess the Earth’s age because a really good cup of tea might help them realise:
a) Earth has no authenticated relationship with meteorites.
b) Earth has no authenticated provenance.
c) Meteorites have no authenticated provenances.
Tasseography (also known as Tasseomancy or Tassology, (Tasseology) is a divination or fortune-telling method that interprets patterns in tea leaves, coffee grounds, or wine sediments.
Earth Scientists might like to ponder whether the magical mathematics of Isaac Newton could have correctly determined his age from the apples that fell on his head.
If you believe the falling apples “formed at the same time” as Isaac Newton’s head then I would suggest you need your bumps felt.
The radiometric dating of terrestrial rocks was shown [from the very beginning] to be an wholly inappropriate mechanism for establishing the age of the Earth because of the variability of isotope percentages [and ratios] found in terrestrial rocks.
The use of radiometric dating was first published in 1907 by Bertram Boltwood and is now the principal source of information about the absolute age of rocks and other geological features, including the age of fossilized life forms or the age of the Earth itself, and can also be used to date a wide range of natural and man-made materials.
Bertram Borden Boltwood (1870-1927) was an American pioneer of radiochemistry.
He established that lead was the final decay product of uranium, noted that the lead-uranium ratio was greater in older rocks and, acting on a suggestion by Ernest Rutherford, was the first to measure the age of rocks by the decay of uranium to lead, in 1907. He got results of ages of 400 to 2200 million years, the first successful use of radioactive decay by Pb/U chemical dating (isotopes not discovered yet).
Uranium–lead dating, abbreviated U–Pb dating, is one of the oldest and most refined of the radiometric dating schemes. It can be used to date rocks that formed and crystallised from about 1 million years to over 4.5 billion years ago with routine precisions in the 0.1–1 percent range.
Earth Scientists have conveniently forgotten that the surface of every object in space is exposed to whatever Mother Nature cares to throw in it’s direction [from above or below].
The asymmetry in the distribution of Thorium spread across the Lunar surface starkly highlights the scientific shambles that is the KREEP narrative.
Earth Scientists appear to overlook the terrestrial rocks that reveal lower levels of uranium are [surprisingly] often associated with lower levels of lead.
Earth Scientists overlook the data suggesting there’s a second Uranium-238 decay chain that includes Thorium-232.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
232Th is the only primordial nuclide of thorium and makes up effectively all of natural thorium, with other isotopes of thorium appearing only in trace amounts as relatively short-lived decay products of uranium and thorium.
Thorianite is a rare thorium oxide mineral, ThO2.
It was originally described by Ananda Coomaraswamy in 1904 as uraninite, but recognized as a new species by Wyndham R. Dunstan. It was so named on account of its high percentage of thorium; it also contains the oxides of uranium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium and neodymium. Helium is present, and the mineral is slightly less radioactive than pitchblende, but is harder to shield due to its high energy gamma rays. It is common in the alluvial gem-gravels of Sri Lanka, where it occurs mostly as water worn, small, heavy, black, cubic crystals. The largest crystals are usually near 1.5 cm. Larger crystals, up to 6 cm (2.4 in), have been reported from Madagascar.
The published uranium natural abundances are incorrect because Uranium-236 [with a decay chain that includes Thorium-232] has a natural abundance that’s possibly closer to 50%.
Earth Scientists would be better served if they stopped adding lots of lovely noughts to their geological ages because the latest epochs are dated by artefacts and observations.
This discovery of a “flat-bottomed river vessel” built using “Roman techniques” in riverbed mud is somewhat embarrassing because this riverbed also contained the Kostolac Mammoth that’s meant to have died between 1.0 and 0.4 million years ago. … It’s since been announced the “Roman ship” is dated to the “3rd century AD”. … The “3rd century AD” dating of the “Roman ship” [and by definition the Kostolac Mammoth] supports Malaga Bay’s alignment: 225 AD = 1395 CE.
Evidently the million year old El Hierro and La Palma hadn’t emerged as Fortunate Islands during Ptolemy’s lifetime [about 100 to 170 AD].
Near Cologne (Rhineland), to give an example, in the lignite area of the Elsbachtal, the gigantic mechanical diggers used to clear away the debris covering the precious coal, a small Roman aqueduct, dated to 224 CE, was brought to light after 7 m of sand and gravel had been removed.
Toppling of Rome’s Obelisks and Aqueducts
Ewald Ernst – August 2014
This Roman water works is not buried under colluvium, but under, ahem, Miocene stratigraphy [Louis Hissink – 2017].
On one hand:
It’s arguable the “upper Miocene” lignite in the Drmno mine aligns with the Arabian Horizon [centred 637 CE] because the re-dated riverbed mud in the Drmno mine aligns with the Hecker Horizon [centred 1350 CE].
The geologic stages following the Miocene suggest a significant geological event occurred during the 2nd millennium CE.
The origin and geological evolution of organic matter of upper Miocene lignites from the Drmno field, Kostolac Basin (Serbia) were evaluated using coal petrology and the composition of biomarkers.
Drmno lignite field (Kostolac basin, Serbia)
Ksenija Stojanović, Dragana Životić, Aleksandra Šajnović, Olga Cvetković, Hans Peter Nytoft, and Georg Scheeder
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society – January 2012
On the other hand:
The number of clearly identifiable levels found in lignite mines and polar ice cores suggest it’s more likely the lignite mine deposits started to form at the Arabian Horizon [centred 637 CE].
The total of these evidences indicates the alternate and intermittent periods of violent erosion such as would dismember animal remains and splinter trees, interspersed with other periods of comparative quiescence so as to allow the growth of “forests” and peat bogs in the same area.
Archaeological Aspects of the Alaska Muck Deposits
Frank C Hibben – 1941
New Mexico Anthropologist, Volume 5, Number 4
This implies the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event is the Arabian Horizon.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research.
They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch.
As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago.
The curved drainage channels around the Plug Hole of the Sea show where the waters of the inland seas swirled down the drain into the Atlantic Basin.
But the Geological Rot doesn’t stop there.
The Jurassic and Cretaceous are contemporaneous concepts that represent [Cretaceous] inland seas filling the drainage basins in the [Jurassic] continental landmasses.
Garrulous Geologists frequently forget fish fossils are only found on land.
And most importantly of all:
Glib Geologists don’t talk too much about the land surrounding the inland seas during the Cretaceous.
If these Geologists ever deign to engage their little grey cells then they might realise the Jurassic and Cretaceous are contemporaneous concepts.
But, as always, feel free to let your lovely noughts flow.