Collapsing The Bronze Age Collapse

Aligning the evidence collapses the Bronze Age Collapse chronology.

The double-headed eagle iconography stretches back into the mists of time.

In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle (or double-eagle) is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.

The eagle has long been a symbol of power and dominion.

Wikipedia – Double-Headed Eagle

The Gandaberunda is a two-headed bird in Hindu mythology, believed to possess immense magical strength.

Wikipedia – Gandaberunda

The word Hindu is an exonym, and while Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world ….

Wikipedia – Hinduism

Sirkap is the name of an archaeological site on the bank opposite to the city of Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan.

The city of Sirkap was built by the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius after he invaded ancient India around 180 BC. Demetrius founded in the northern and northwestern modern Pakistan an Indo-Greek kingdom that was to last until around 10 BC.

A special Stupa at Sirkap is the so-called ‘Double-Headed Eagle Stupa‘.

The pilasters here are of a Greek design, “Corinthian columns”.

In the middle arch, a Greek temple is shown; in the outer, a shrine of a Hindu design can be seen. On top of these sanctuaries, a Double-headed eagle is seated from which the name of the Stupa has been derived.

Wikipedia – Sirkap

Two instances of the double-headed eagle are particularly intriguing.

The double-headed eagle or double-eagle is a motif that appears in Mycenaean Greece and in the Ancient Near East, especially in Hittite iconography.

It re-appeared during the High Middle Ages, from circa the 10th or 11th century, and was notably used by the East Roman Empire, but 11th or 12th century representations have also been found originating from Islamic Spain, France and the Serbian principality of Raška.

From the 13th century onward, it became even more widespread, and was used by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and the Mamluk Sultanate within the Islamic world, and by the Holy Roman Empire, Serbia, several medieval Albanian noble families and Russia within the Christian world.

Wikipedia – Double-Headed Eagle

The 2nd millennium AD Sultanate of Rum double-headed eagle in Anatolia.

Seljuks in Asia Minor – Tamara Talbot Rice – 1961

Sultanate of Rûm 1077–1308

The Sultanate of Rum or Rum Seljuk Sultanate, consisted of mainly Byzantine (Rûm) subjects ruled by mainly Turko-Persian Sunni Muslims, who had become established in parts of Anatolia recently conquered from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by the Seljuk Turks.

The name Rûm was a synonym for Eastern Romans, that is the Byzantine Greeks, as it remains in modern Turkish. It derives from the Arabic name for ancient Rome … itself a loan from Koine Greek…

The Seljuk sultans bore the brunt of the Crusades and eventually succumbed to the Mongol invasion at the 1243 Battle of Köse Dağ. For the remainder of the 13th century, the Seljuks acted as vassals of the Ilkhanate. Their power disintegrated during the second half of the 13th century. The last of the Seljuk vassal sultans of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308.

Wikipedia – Sultanate of Rum

And the 2nd millennium BC Hittite double-headed eagle in Anatolia.

The Hittite empire started from meager beginnings, when Indo-Europeans settled with the natives on the plain of central Anatolia.

The Hittite use of the double-headed eagle, and their idea of it, probably came from precursors in Mesopotamia. However, as long as the meaning of the Mesopotamian double-headed eagle is not understood the adoption of it by the Hittites cannot hold much importance.

The Function of The Double-Headed Eagle At Yazilikaya
Jesse David Chariton – May 2008 – University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

After c. 1180 BC, during the Late Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent Syro-Hittite states, some of which survived until the eighth century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

Wikipedia – Hittites

The intrigue involves:

1) The re-emergence of the double-headed eagle in Anatolia after 2,255 years.

2) The Hittite double-headed eagle avoiding 2,255 years of weathering.

3) The remarkably recent discovery of the Hittites.

The Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce (1845-1933), was a pioneer British Assyriologist and linguist, who held a chair as Professor of Assyriology at the University of Oxford from 1891 to 1919.

In 1876 he speculated that the hieroglyphs in inscriptions discovered at Hamath in Syria, were not related to Assyrian or Egyptian scripts but came from another culture he identified as the Hittites. … His hypothesis was confirmed when he visited some of the sites on a tour of the Near East in the same year. On his return to England, Sayce presented a lecture to the Society of Biblical Archaeology in London, where he announced that the Hittites where a much more influential culture than previously thought with their own art and language.

Wikipedia – Archibald Sayce

4) The difficulty of dating the Hittites.

Hittites, an ancient people, alluded to frequently in the earlier records of Israel, and also, under slightly variant names, in Egyptian records of the XVIIIth, XIXth and XXth Dynasties, and in Assyrian from about 1100 to 700 B.C. They appear also in the Vannic cuneiform texts, and are believed to be the authors of a class of monuments bearing inscriptions in a peculiar pictographic character, and widely distributed over Asia Minor and N. Syria, around which much controversy has raged during the past thirty years.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 13 – Hittites

As to absolute chronology, the assigning of a regnal year to a definite date B.C. is clear enough (except in occasional detail) from the conquest by Alexander onwards. Before that time, in spite of successive efforts to establish a chronology, the problem is very obscure.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica – Volume 9 – Ancient Egypt

And, most significantly of all:

5) The “fall” of the Hittites being associated with the “sea peoples” and the Late Bronze Age Collapse.

After c. 1180 BC, during the Late Bronze Age Collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent Syro-Hittite states, some of which survived until the eighth century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

Wikipedia – Hittites

The Hittite empire started from meager beginnings, when Indo-Europeans settled with the natives on the plain of central Anatolia.

The fall of the kingdom was either directly or indirectly related to the so-called sea peoples (Beckman 2007: 111).

The Function of The Double-Headed Eagle At Yazilikaya
Jesse David Chariton – May 2008 – University of Wisconsin-La Crosse

Associating the “fall” of the Hittites with the “sea peoples” is especially intriguing because history contains three different versions of the 275 year long Sea Peoples narrative.

Conceptually and chronologically the Sea Peoples narrative slots neatly into the 275 year gap between the Arabian Horizon [637 CE] and the Heinsohn Horizon [912 CE].

The curious chronological coincidence of the
275 year Ptolemaic narrative
echoing the
275 year Sea Peoples narrative
and the
273 year Viking narrative.

This curious chronological coincidence implies the Ptolemaic, Sea Peoples, and Viking narratives could have occurred simultaneously in the 275 year gap between the Arabian Horizon [637 CE] and the Heinsohn Horizon [912 CE].

The Ptolemaic People Puzzle

The revised dating has three key implications for this narrative.


The revised dating implies the Bronze Age Collapse is misdated by [roughly] 1,800 years.

The Late Bronze Age Collapse was a transition period in the Near East, Anatolia, the Aegean region, North Africa, the Caucasus, the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.

The palace economy of the Aegean region and Anatolia that characterized the Late Bronze Age disintegrated, transforming into the small isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages.

The half-century between c. 1200 and 1150 BCE saw the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, of the Kassites in Babylonia, of the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and the Levant, and the New Kingdom of Egypt; the destruction of Ugarit and the Amorite states in the Levant, the fragmentation of the Luwian states of western Anatolia, and a period of chaos in Canaan.

Wikipedia – Late Bronze Age Collapse

The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BCE).

Wikipedia – Sea Peoples


The revised dating implies the European Migration Period occurred between 637 and 912 CE and the official history book version is just “farcical fictions and fantastic fables”.

The Migration Period was a period in the history of Europe, during and after the decline of the Western Roman Empire, during which there was widespread migration of and invasions by peoples, notably the Germanic tribes, the Huns, the early Slavs, and the Pannonian Avars within or into the Roman Empire (and later the Byzantine Empire). The period is traditionally taken to have begun in AD 375 (possibly as early as 300) and ended in 568.

Wikipedia – Migration Period

Academia has failed to realise farcical fictions and fantastic fables have been pumped and dumped into the Academic Abyss on an industrial scale.

British Bones and the Academic Abyss


The revised dating implies Ptolemaic Egypt bridges the gap between the Hittites and the emergence of the Sultanate of Rum after the Heinsohn Horizon.

More specifically:

It implies the splintering of the Hittites’ Sphere of Influence caused [amongst other things] the establishment of Ptolemaic Egypt and the Kingdom of Syria.

Wikipedia – Hittites

Wikipedia – Ptolemaic Kingdom

Wikipedia – Seleucid Empire

More accurately:

The catastrophic separation of Anatolia from Africa during the “Miocene” left behind [amongst other things] Ptolemaic Egypt and the Kingdom of Syria.

The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands.

Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile.

A canyon, now filled by surface drift, represents an ancestral Nile called the Eonile that flowed during the later Miocene (23–5.3 million years before present).

The Eonile transported clastic sediments to the Mediterranean; several natural gas fields have been discovered within these sediments.

During the late-Miocene Messinian salinity crisis, when the Mediterranean Sea was a closed basin and evaporated to the point of being empty or nearly so, the Nile cut its course down to the new base level until it was several hundred metres below world ocean level at Aswan and 2,400 m (7,900 ft) below Cairo.

This created a very long and deep canyon which was filled with sediment after the Mediterranean was recreated.

At some point the sediments raised the riverbed sufficiently for the river to overflow westward into a depression to create Lake Moeris.

Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Nile until the Virunga Volcanoes blocked its course in Rwanda.

The Nile was much longer at that time, with its furthest headwaters in northern Zambia.

Wikipedia – Nile – Eonile

The evidence indicates the draining of the Egyptian Sea into the Mediterranean Basin radically altered the Egyptian landscape and it’s climate.

Enigmatic Egypt: The Promised Land

Enigmatic Egypt: Myths and Monsters

Enigmatic Egypt: The Walrus and the Carpenter

The splintered Double-Headed Eagle of the Hittite Sphere of Influence is displayed on the coinage of Ptolemaic Egypt and the Kingdom of Syria.

Classical Numismatic Group

Classical Numismatic Group

The splintering of the Hittite Sphere of Influence explains the Anatolian coins of Hadrian and Caracalla with the “17th century BC Hittite” Sandan.

The cult of Sandan, or Sandas, is a remnant of the 17th century BC Hittite occupation of Cilicia.

In his Luwian form he was Teshub, the god of mountain storms.

Within the Hittite sanctuary at Yazilikaya he is depicted as a bearded god with conical headdress, holding a club and plant, probably related to the Mesopotamian Tree of Life.

Like the rest of the Hittite High Gods, Teshub’s feet never touch earth; he either rides the back of mythological beasts, is borne on the shoulders of lesser gods, or strides above the mountain tops.

The mountain tops recall the lofty Hittite homeland, as does the high-peaked cap, and the pyramidal shape of Sandan’s altar.

While Sandan’s cult in Tarsos became assimilated with that of Herakles, in his origins as a nature god he is more similar to the Greek king of the gods, Zeus.

Classical Numismatic Group

Latin Languages: Italic Iberians

Hadrian was born on 24 January 76, probably in Italica (near modern Seville) in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica; one Roman biographer claims he was born at Rome.

Wikipedia – Hadrian

Coins from the early layers of Kom el-Dikka [Alexandria] feature Septimius Severus, Trajan and Hadrian.

Bubastis, also known in Arabic as Tell-Basta or in Egyptian as Per-Bast, was an Ancient Egyptian city. Bubastis is often identified with the biblical Pi-Beseth.

Bubastite coins of the age of Hadrian exist.

Enigmatic Egypt: Roman Ruination – Nile Delta

Sandas (more commonly spelt as “Sandan“) was the Anatolian (Hittite) lion god during the Classical period.

Wikipedia – Sandas

The evidence suggests the physical splintering of the Hittite Sphere of Influence created the islands of Cyprus and Crete [Knossos].

The “K” in Knossos suggests it was originally a Phoenician colony that subsequently minted Carthaginian style coins with Greek lettering and the seven-course “Classical” labyrinth.

Knossos appears to be another example of the Great Splice where Carthaginians and their artefacts have been culturally appropriated by the Roman narrative.

Harold Sterling Gladwin: The Minoan Maze

Cyprus became part of the Hellenistic empire of Ptolemaic Egypt. It was during this period that the island was fully Hellenized.

Wikipedia – Cyprus

At this point in the narrative there’s a definite blurring of the lines of demarcation between Phoenician, Hittite Sphere of Influence, and Carthaginian Empire.

The “K” in Knossos suggests it was originally a Phoenician colony that subsequently minted Carthaginian style coins with Greek lettering and the seven-course “Classical” labyrinth.

Harold Sterling Gladwin: The Minoan Maze

Unlike their Phoenician ancestors, the Carthaginians had a landowning aristocracy, which established a rule of the hinterland in Northwestern Africa and trans-Saharan trade routes. In later times, one of the clans established a Hellenistic-inspired empire in Mediterranean Iberia and possibly had a foothold in western Gaul.

Wikipedia – Punics

But it’s very clear the drop in sea-levels in the Mediterranean Basins caused the division of the Carthaginian Empire into two spheres of operation.

In geology this drop in sea level is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

Roads to Rome

But, as always:

Don’t blindly accept any narrative as the gospel truth.


Review the available evidence and draw your own conclusions.

This entry was posted in Arabian Horizon, Books, Catastrophism, Enigmatic Egypt, Geology, Hecker Horizon, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Old Japanese Cedar Tree, Roman Chronology. Bookmark the permalink.

7 Responses to Collapsing The Bronze Age Collapse

  1. Louis Hissink says:

    The Dutch 1685 De Wit map of Africa adds a couple of communist rollmops to the debate. The Nile outlet seems interesting.

    Given Greeks and the Bronze Age, the gods might have excavated the Mediterranean basin, after which the Sahara sea flowed into the Mediterranean lowlands. This period would be the Miocene dry period since most believe the Mediterranean existed before the Greeks. It’s the miner in me – lost of loose rubble and sands everywhere that have had to be excavated from the nearest “holes”, and not from the slow erosion of fictitious granitic mountains.

    Excellent synopsis btw,

  2. godel escher says:

    there are some other really interesting more recent stories you could add to your analysis, especially the conflict between the egypt elayet and the ottoman empire in the 1830’s echoed the ptolemaid/seleucid schism and it is worth mentioning that muhammad ali the egyptian “king” is from albania ( two headed eagle reference with relation to the character of iksander/alexander ).

    • malagabay says:

      There are many interesting threads to the history of the double-headed eagle.
      Some of the threads are very sensitive subjects.
      Some of the threads are stranger than others.

  3. Boris Tabaksplatt says:

    Yes, order out of chaos seems a good slogan for the present time. Businesses as normal for the Phoenician Navy.

  4. The two headed eagle may have a simple reason. Like some winged bulls from assyrian or babylonian times. Heads with faces that looked both front and side. The ‘All seeing’.

  5. Pingback: Antipodal Hotspots and Bipolar Catastrophes | MalagaBay

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