Antipodal Hotspots and Bipolar Catastrophes

Pack your bags for an Earth-Shattering trip to the South Pacific.

One of the more difficult geographical puzzles to resolve is the combined choreography of the landmasses around the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea.

Collapsing The Bronze Age Collapse
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/11/23/collapsing-the-bronze-age-collapse/

The Heinsohn Horizon and The Parting of the Red Sea
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/11/13/the-heinsohn-horizon-and-the-parting-of-the-red-sea/

Malaga Bay – The Arabian Horizon – The Ptolemy Inheritance
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/10/17/the-arabian-horizon-the-ptolemy-inheritance/

It’s arguable this sequence of landmass movements were initiated by the separation of Africa and Arabia with the Afar Triple Junction being a very obvious point of divergence.

The Arabian Horizon – The Lost Lands: Punt
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/10/21/the-arabian-horizon-the-lost-lands-punt/

The Fentale stratovolcano marks the apex of this point of divergence.

Elevation: 2,007 m – 6,585 ft
Coordinates: 8° 58′ N 39° 56′ E

Fentale is a stratovolcano located in the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. It is the highest point of Fentale woreda.

Wikipedia – Mount Fentale
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Fentale

The antipode of the Fentale stratovolcano in Ethiopia is the volcanic island of Nuku Hiva in the Marquesas Islands [French Polynesia] which were first settled “around AD 900–1000”.

Coordinates: 8° 52′ S 140° 08′ W
Highest elevation: 1,224 m – 4016 ft

Nuku Hiva (sometimes spelled “Nukahiva”) is the largest of the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia, an overseas country of France in the Pacific Ocean.

Pine forest plantations covering large areas all around the crater of To’ovi’i give an overall impression of the lower Alps and parts of Germany, Wales and Switzerland. In one place, Vaipō Waterfall, the collected water falls off a highland and falls 350 m (1,148 ft).

Wikipedia – Nuku Hiva
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuku_Hiva

The Marquesas Islands are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean.

The Marquesas are located at 9.7812° S, 139.0817° W.

The highest point is the peak of Mount Oave on Ua Pou island at 1,230 m (4,035 ft) above sea level

In 2014, the date of first settlement for the Marquesas was pushed back slightly to around AD 900–1000.

Wikipedia – Marquesas Islands
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marquesas_Islands

The curious aspect of the Marquesas Islands is that they’re a point of divergence that separated sometime between “400 and 500 CE”.

And the Disjunct Distribution of Saccharum officinarum suggests the Marquesas Islands were a divergent point of departure sometime between 400 and 500 CE.

Indian Salt: Wallace Line
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/01/30/indian-salt-wallace-line/

Harold Sterling Gladwin: Cord-Marked Pottery
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/11/01/harold-sterling-gladwin-cord-marked-pottery/

These two points of divergence are within the scope of Jonathan Hagstrum’s Antipodal Hotspots and Bipolar Catastrophes paper published in 2005.

One aspect of the hotspot distribution that has received little attention is its antipodal character.

Of 45 ‘primary’ hotspots found in most hotspot compilations 22 (49%) form antipodal pairs within observed hotspot drift limits (≤ 20 mm/yr).

In addition, the available ages, or possible age ranges, for both hotspots of an antipodal pair tend to be similar (≤ 10 Myr difference) or overlap.

Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the antipodal primary hotspots’ locations and ages are not due to chance at the > 99% confidence level ( p < 0.01).

All hotspot pairs include at least one oceanic hotspot, and these are consistently opposite those hotspots related to large igneous provinces (LIPs) and continental volcanism.

A mechanism of formation is considered in which minor hotspot volcanism is induced at, and flood basalt volcanism is triggered by seismic energy focused antipodal to, oceanic large-body impact sites.

Because continental impacts are expected to have lower seismic efficiencies, continents possibly acted as shields to the formation of antipodal hotspot pairs.

Antipodal Hotspots and Bipolar Catastrophes:
Were oceanic large-body impacts the cause?
Jonathan T Hagstrum
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume 236, Issues 1–2, 30 July 2005, Pages 13–27

http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Antip_hot.pdf

Mainstream Earth Scientists tend to view Hotspots as “anomalously hot”.

The mainstream admits “there are two hypotheses that attempt to explain” Hotspots.

But there are other hypotheses which the mainstream prefers to ignore.

One such hypothesis by Jonathan T. Hagstrum was published in 2005.

Liesegang Cavities: 5 – Antipodal Hotspot
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/08/05/liesegang-cavities-5-antipodal-hotspot/

The minimum age for volcanism in the Marquesas is six million years ago.

Several ages of initiation for the Marquesas hotspot are also possible. Islands of the Marquesas archipelago indicate a minimum age for hotspot volcanism of ~6 Ma.

Crough and Jarrard, however, interpret a topographic swell between the Marquesas Islands and Line Islands as a continuation of the Marquesas hotspot track, thus increasing the track length back to ~40 Ma.

In addition, an age of ~36 Ma has been obtained from seafloor samples near the intersection of the Line Islands (having non-progressive ages) and the Marquesas swell.

Although peak flood basalt volcanism at the antipodal Afar hotspot (~179º; Table 2) occurred between ~31 and 29 Ma, and was associated with opening of the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, regional volcanism began earlier at ~38 Ma.

Antipodal Hotspots and Bipolar Catastrophes:
Were oceanic large-body impacts the cause?
Jonathan T Hagstrum
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume 236, Issues 1–2, 30 July 2005, Pages 13–27

http://www.mantleplumes.org/WebDocuments/Antip_hot.pdf

This places Marquesas volcanism in the Messinian stage of the Miocene.

The Miocene Mysteries
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/08/18/the-miocene-mysteries/

This aligns volcanism in the Marquesas with the opening of the Red Sea.

Strangely enough, the Red Sea also experienced a salinity crisis in the Miocene which [also] appears to have been resolved during the Messinian.

The Miocene Mysteries
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/08/18/the-miocene-mysteries/

This dating also aligns volcanism in the Marquesas with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the separation of Anatolia from Africa, and the creation of the Eonile Canyon.

The Miocene Mysteries
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/08/18/the-miocene-mysteries/

The catastrophic separation of Anatolia from Africa during the “Miocene” left behind [amongst other things] Ptolemaic Egypt and the Kingdom of Syria.

Collapsing The Bronze Age Collapse
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/11/23/collapsing-the-bronze-age-collapse/

The Nile: Evolution, Quaternary River Environments and Material Fluxes
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227992119

During the late-Miocene Messinian salinity crisis, when the Mediterranean Sea was a closed basin and evaporated to the point of being empty or nearly so, the Nile cut its course down to the new base level until it was several hundred metres below world ocean level at Aswan and 2,400 m (7,900 ft) below Cairo.

Wikipedia – Nile – Eonile
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nile#Eonile

Now seems like the perfect time to become horizontally aligned with a beach towel whilst considering the choreography of concurrent catastrophic bi-polar points of divergence.

This entry was posted in Antipodal Hotspots, Arabian Horizon, Catastrophism, Geology, Heinsohn Horizon, Inflating Earth. Bookmark the permalink.

9 Responses to Antipodal Hotspots and Bipolar Catastrophes

  1. Nang' says:

    Les marquises happens to be Jacques Brel’s last haunting song before illness claimed his life.
    Last sentence he ever sang : “Veux tu que je te dise ? Gémir n’est pas de mise aux Marquises” which roughly translates as : Shall I tell you ? Whining isn’t appropriate at the Marquesas.

  2. Boris Tabaksplatt says:

    And then we have “The Blobs”…

    The monstrous ‘blobs’ near Earth’s core may be even bigger than we thought…
    “Deep within Earth, where the solid mantle meets the molten outer core, strange continent-size blobs of hot rock jut out for hundreds of miles in every direction. These underground mountains go by many names: “thermo-chemical piles,” “large low-shear velocity provinces” (LLSVPs), or sometimes just “the blobs.”…

    Read more here…
    https://www.livescience.com/core-mantle-ulvz-blobs-enormous.html

  3. Boris Tabaksplatt says:

    Always puzzled me that when viewed from above the centre of the Pacific Ocean it almost covers a full hemisphere of the globe. I’ve never been able to find a rational geophysical reason for how this happened.

    Picture here…

  4. Louis Hissink says:

    There is no rational geophysical explanation. Take away the water and Earth is much like the planet Mars. Both planets have a bimodal topography – large areas of uplands and lowlands that on Earth are filled with water. Using a mining meme, we have two planets that have been excavated and there is the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The asteroid belt could be the rubble excavated from both planets during a cataclysmic encounter in the past. After all, the Greeks memorialized it as Mars the planet of war. Were the Greeks alluding to the Earth-Mars encounter?

  5. miqqedem says:

    Further possible proofs on Parting Pacific
    1. Tapir range, extinct and living https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapir#Species

    2. Dicksonia tree fern range https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicksonia

    “The genus contains 20–25 species, distributed from Mexico to Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Chile, St. Helena, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. New Guinea has the greatest diversity, with five species.”

    3. Sweet potato range https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweet_potato

    “In Peru, the Quechua name for a type of sweet potato is kumar, strikingly similar to the Polynesian name kumara and its regional Oceanic cognates (kumala, umala, ‘uala, etc.), which has led some scholars to suspect an instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. This theory is also supported by genetic evidence.[12]…In New Zealand, the Māori varieties bore elongated tubers with white skin and a whitish flesh.[14] (which, it is thought, points to pre-European cross-Pacific travel).[15]…

    The sweet potato was grown in Polynesia before western exploration as the Ipomoea batatas, which is generally spread by vine cuttings rather than by seeds.[22] Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1210-1400 CE.[23] A common hypothesis is that a vine cutting was brought to central Polynesia by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, and spread from there across Polynesia to Easter Island, Hawaii and New Zealand.[24][25] Genetic traces of the Zenú, a people inhabiting the Pacific coast of present-day Colombia, indicate possible transport of the sweet potato to Polynesia prior to European contact.[26]

    Divergence time estimates suggest that sweet potatoes might have been present in Polynesia thousands of years before humans arrived there,[27][28] although some question this.[29]”

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  8. johnm33 says:

    The ultra low velocity zones make little sense to me in terms of physics, here http://doyeonkim.us/sequencing_seismograms they are ‘cast’ as high density. My understanding is that the denser a material the faster the waves travel, thus if we have hydrogen ions emerging from the outer core then that reacting with any oxygen present, instantly permeating the rock with super-critical water at extreme temperatures catalsyses any number of exothermic reactions and dissolves otherwise insoluble materials. Massive expansion/density decrease and fluidity ensues, perhaps releasing enough water, as steam, to obviate the need for ‘ice ages’ yet itself creating massive cooling as an atmosphere expanded by a significant fraction cools and covers high altitudes and latitudes with snow.
    I begin to suspect that double layers of charge moderate a broad spectrum wave emission from both the inner and outer cores and that these ‘push’ against gravitational forces. Does anyone look at full spectrum em emissions when searching for minerals?

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