African Lineaments

African Lineaments show the African Plate isn’t all it’s cracked-up to be.

The African Plate has a revered status in Earth Science.

The African Plate is used as a baseline against which the movement of other Tectonic Plates are referenced.

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the Equator as well as the prime meridian.

Between 60 million years ago and 10 million years ago, the Somali Plate began rifting from the African Plate along the East African Rift.

Wikipedia – African Plate
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Plate

The African Plate is also used as the cornerstone of the Out of Africa franchise that’s spawned several stories about Homo Sapiens shuffling slowly around the globe.

Several expansions of populations of archaic humans (genus Homo) out of Africa and throughout Eurasia took place in the course of the Lower Paleolithic, and into the beginning Middle Paleolithic, between about 2.1 million and 0.2 million years ago (Ma).

These expansions are collectively known as Out of Africa I, in contrast to the expansion of Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans) into Eurasia, which may have begun shortly after 0.2 million years ago (known in this context as “Out of Africa II“).

The earliest presence of Homo (or indeed any hominin) outside of Africa dates to close to 2 million years ago.

Wikipedia – Early expansions of hominins out of Africa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_expansions_of_hominins_out_of_Africa

However, one look at their Out of Africa map suggests something is very wrong.

Anyone who hasn’t imbibed the Kool Aid would wonder whether the African Landmass is formed from [at least] two sutured landmasses.

Wikipedia – Early expansions of hominins out of Africa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_expansions_of_hominins_out_of_Africa

Haplogroup R, or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.

Wikimedia – Haplogroup R (Y-DNA)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R_(Y-DNA)

In structural geology, a suture is a joining together along a major fault zone, of separate terranes, tectonic units that have different plate tectonic, metamorphic and paleogeographic histories. The suture is often represented on the surface by an orogen or mountain range.

Wikipedia – Suture (geology)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suture_(geology)

This possibility is reinforced by the limited “hybrid zone” of the African Rock Python which [in it’s turn] suggests the suturing together of the African Landmass occurred recently.

Wikipedia – Python (genus)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(genus)

In fact:

The maps of Ptolemy suggest the shattering of the Old World and the subsequent suturing together of the New World occurred very recently,

Comparing Ptolemy’s map of West Africa with the current incarnation of West Africa indicates the Senegal Triple Junction fractured in the Current Era.

The Senegal Triple Junction fracture was inflationary with rips and tears.

Malaga Bay – Senegal Triple Junction
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/12/11/senegal-triple-junction/

The new results define a coherent loop in the archeomagnetic curve for southern Africa between ca. 425 and ca. 1370 CE.

In other words, the earliest site (SL, 400–450 CE) shows directions that are statistically indistinguishable from those more than 900 years later (AD 160, 1317–1415 CE).

https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2017GL076007

Malaga Bay – Spinning Southern Africa
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/04/spinning-southern-africa/

An initial step towards unravelling the history of the African Landmass involves identifying the Lineament Sutures that mark the boundaries between the component landmasses.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235939315

A lineament is a linear feature in a landscape which is an expression of an underlying geological structure such as a fault.

Typically a lineament will appear as a fault-aligned valley, a series of fault or fold-aligned hills, a straight coastline or indeed a combination of these features.

Fracture zones, shear zones and igneous intrusions such as dykes can also be expressed as geomorphic lineaments.

Lineaments are often apparent in geological or topographic maps and can appear obvious on aerial or satellite photographs.

There are for example, several instances within Great Britain. In Scotland the Great Glen Fault and Highland Boundary Fault give rise to lineaments as does the Malvern Line in western England and the Neath Disturbance in South Wales.

Wikipedia – Lineament
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lineament

The Niarbyl Fault is an exposed section of the Iapetus Suture as it crosses through the Irish Sea. It is readily visible in present-day Niarbyl on the southwest coast of Isle of Man.

The Niarbyl fault is evidence of two paleocontinents colliding: Avalonia on which present-day England is located and Laurentia which contains both present-day North America and Scotland.

Wikipedia – Iapetus Suture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niarbyl_Fault

That’s easier said than done.

Firstly:

Some Lineament Sutures can only identified by using satellite imagery.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232562536

Two limitations have restricted the efficiency of ground observations for analyzing these regional features:

(1) they are difficult to identify clearly ‘close-up,’ either because of their sheer magnitude, or due to a camouflage of secondary features, or because they were simply ignored as being hitherto unexplainable ‘background noise’ such as regional fissuring, and

(2) they are geographically and/or politically inaccessible.

Part of our approach and methods have therefore necessarily been similar to those currently used in geological studies of the planets and their moons.

We are amused to note that the old anecdote about the blind men who could touch different parts of the elephant but could not agree among themselves whether the animal was hard or soft, round or wall-like, is a useful analogy and that the true nature of this oversized system would never have been recognized without the overview provided by satellite imagery.

The Pelusium Megashear System across Africa and associated lineament swarms
David Neev, John Kendrick Hall, and John M Saul – February 1982
Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 87(B2):1015-1030

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240484954

Secondly:

Some large scale geological structures are “questioned”.

The so-called Pelusium Megashear System (PMS), consists of echelon left-lateral megashears crossing from the Nile-Delta since the Precambrian times.

Although this system is questioned by some scientists, its existence is supported by others.

Truthfulness of the Existence of the Pelusium Megashear Fault System,
East of Cairo, Egypt – Mohamed A Gamal
International Journal of Geosciences – Vol 4 No1 – January 2013

https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=27165

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232562536

Thirdly:

African Lineament Sutures severely inconvenience some academic franchises that rely upon the imaginative African Plate storyline.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240484954

For example:

The landmass hosting the [roughly] 300,000 year old human skull found in Jebel Irhoud [Morocco] was probably part of Europe before it became attached to Africa.

Either way:

The Jebel Irhou human skull embarrasses the Out of Africa franchise.

Wikipedia – Early expansions of hominins out of Africa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_expansions_of_hominins_out_of_Africa

Jebel Irhoud is an archaeological site located just north of the locality known as Tlet Ighoud, about 50 km (30 mi) south-east of the city of Safi in Morocco.

It is noted for the hominin fossils that have been found there since the site’s discovery in 1960. Originally thought to be Neanderthals, the specimens have since been assigned to Homo sapiens and have been dated to roughly 300,000 years ago (286±32 ka for the Irhoud 3 mandible, 315±34 ka based on other fossils and the flint artefacts found nearby).

Wikipedia – Jebel Irhoud
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jebel_Irhoud

https://www.academia.edu/859036

The Maghrib was characterized by a peculiar insularity that created an unusual dialectic between it and the rest of the Mediterranean, an insularity whose effects can be witnessed in typically recurrent patterns found in its history during the pre-modern age.

A Peculiar Island: Maghrib and Mediterranean – D. Shaw Brent
Mediterranean Historical Review – Volume 18 – 2003 – Issue 2

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/0951896032000230507

For example:

The distribution of pygmy primates across Central Africa suggests the Central African landmass once hosted an inland sea with genetically isolated islands of primates.

Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0041D88HE
Amazon US: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B0041D88HE

The bonobo, also historically called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other being the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

Bonobos are found only south of the Congo River and north of the Kasai River (a tributary of the Congo), in the humid forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Wikipedia – Bonobo
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmy_chimpanzee

The African Pygmies (or Congo Pygmies, variously also “Central African foragers”, “African rainforest hunter-gatherers” (RHG) or “Forest People of Central Africa”) are a group of ethnicities native to Central Africa, mostly the Congo Basin, traditionally subsisting on a forager and hunter-gatherer lifestyle.

Wikipedia – African Pygmies
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Pygmies

It’s difficult to determine the exact number of component parts that are sutured together to form the African Landmass because Lineaments include fractures and sutures.

But what’s known [so far] shatters the African Plate storyline.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249552258

On the other hand:

You can never under-estimate the impact of academic amnesia.

This entry was posted in Catastrophism, Geology, Inflating Earth, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to African Lineaments

  1. Marcus says:

    This is great, but I’m confused about how this meshes with the expanding earth paradigm.

  2. Patrick Donnelly says:

    Scholars seem to lack the courage to show the cracks in landmass due to enlargement of the globe!

    Why do they neglect to try to fit the jigsaw on “Adam”? Even ignoring the birth of Eve ….just a lack of imagination?

  3. Yry says:

    Somewhere in the Congo jungle…
    “Mr LivingCullen I presume? – – – Shatteringly good!

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