Ptolemy’s Paradigm

Ptolemy’s Paradigm provides pesky problems with simple solutions.

Ptolemy’s Paradigm is based upon the simple premise that Ptolemy’s Geographia describes the Old World [that subsequently morphed into the New World].

Reconciling Ptolemy’s maps with modern maps is a challenge.

This is especially true for Gradualists who don’t accept Before and After Earth images represent a catastrophic transformation.

Instead of identifying changes Gradualists identify “errors”.

Instead of acknowledging change Gradualists explain away anomalies.

Malaga Bay – Cape Bojador and The Fortunate Islands

The term “New World” is a name used for the majority of Earth’s Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas. The term gained prominence in the early 16th century, during the Age of Discovery, shortly after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci concluded that America represented a new continent, and subsequently published his findings in a pamphlet titled Mundus Novus.

Wikipedia – New World

The limited “habitable” latitudes of Ptolemy’s Old World were wedged between the burning zone and the freezing zone.

Ptolemy’s Geographia describes a very limited “habitable world”.

The “habitable world” is wedged between burning and freezing zones.

Malaga Bay – The Arabian Horizon – The Ptolemy Inheritance

Let us, therefore, go back for a moment, and survey the little old world and its inhabitants as they appeared about the middle of the fifteenth century

According to Ptolemy, the best recognized authority, whose geography had stood the test of thirteen hundred years, the then known world was a strip of some seventy degrees wide, mostly north of the equator, with Cadiz on the west, and farthest India or Cathay on the east, lying between the frozen and burning zones, both impassable by man.

Historical and Geographical Notes on the Earliest Discoveries in America
Henry Stevens – 1869

A remarkable feature of Ptolemy’s Old World was that it experienced no seasons because the burning zone was always tilted towards the star the Old World orbited.

In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.

A rotational vortex – one which has non-zero vorticity away from the core – can be maintained indefinitely in that state only through the application of some extra force, that is not generated by the fluid motion itself.

For example, if a water bucket is spun at constant angular speed w about its vertical axis, the water will eventually rotate in rigid-body fashion. The particles will then move along circles, with velocity u equal to wr. In that case, the free surface of the water will assume a parabolic shape.

In this situation, the rigid rotating enclosure provides an extra force, namely an extra pressure gradient in the water, directed inwards, that prevents evolution of the rigid-body flow to the irrotational state.

Wikipedia – Vortex

The [remnant] ice of the Old World freezing zone is still [slowly] melting away.

The New Siberian Islands are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.

Wikipedia – New Siberian Islands

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Ivory Islands in the Arctic

Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island, or Great Lyakhovsky, is the largest of the Lyakhovsky Islands belonging to the New Siberian Islands archipelago between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea in northern Russia. It has an area of 4,600 km², and a maximum altitude of 270 m (Emy Tas).

Wikipedia – Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Buried Elephants in the Arctic

The Itkillik River is a 220-mile (350 km) tributary of the Colville River in the North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska.

A melting permafrost formation exposed along the Itkillik River is the largest known yedoma in Alaska. The formation … contains remains of bison, muskoxen, mammoths, and other animals embedded in an ice cliff that is 100 feet (30 m) high and 1,200 feet (370 m) long. The ice is rich in methane. Odors emitted by the gasses released when the ice thaws have led to the site’s nickname, the Stinking Hills or Stinky Bluffs.

Wikipedia – Itkillik River

Permafrost is ground that continuously remains below 0°C (32°F) for two or more years, located on land or under the ocean. Permafrost does not have to be the first layer that is on the ground. It can be from an inch to several miles deep under the Earth’s surface.

Some of the most common permafrost locations are in the Northern Hemisphere. Almost a quarter of the Northern Hemisphere is underlain by permafrost, including 85% of Alaska, Greenland, Canada and Siberia.

It can also be located on mountaintops in the Southern Hemisphere.

Wikipedia – Permafrost

The original extent of the Old World freezing zone can be determined by aligning the semi-circular permafrost patterns.

Wikipedia – Permafrost

Aligning the semi-circular permafrost patterns confirms the transformation of the Old World into the New World involved the dislocation of landmasses, the draining of the inland seas, and the filling of the new oceanic basins as the Earth inflated.

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: The Swing State

Reverse engineering Anaximander’s Earth “whose altitude is one third the diameter” into a 3D object has inspired several earth is like an egg interpretations.

Supporting Evidence
○ The Earth is not a perfect sphere and is still “flattened at the poles”.

○ Historical records show “both al-Idrisi and the Norse tend to understate distances”.

○ It’s reported the circumference of the Earth has increased by 20% since 114 AD.

○ The cartographic evidence clearly shows the Arctic Circle moving North and Iceland going South as the Earth inflated between 1606 and 1906.

○ The cartographic evidence clearly shows an Arc Route between Norway and Iceland grew from 21º to 25º of longitude as the Earth inflated between 1606 and 2007.

○ Comparing the “Dulceti” chart with a modern map provides a very good overview of how Western European landmass has been stretched, shaped and swivelled by the inflating Earth since 1339.

○ The cartographic evidence suggests the Southern Oceans expanded dramatically during the 2nd half of the 2nd millennium.

○ The bathymetry of the Arctic Ocean provides very clear evidence that the Earth’s Crust cracked open as the Earth inflated beneath the surface landmasses.

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Anaximander’s Cake

… the transformation of the Colorado River from a modest overflow channel into a funnelled flood that [amongst other things] excavated the Grand Canyon as the Western Interior Seaway drained away into the Pacific Ocean.

Malaga Bay – Harold Sterling Gladwin: The Minoan Maze

The curved drainage channels around the Plug Hole of the Sea show where the waters of the inland seas swirled down the drain into the Atlantic Basin.

Malaga Bay – TOTO and the PHOTS

Malaga Bay – Ocean Cooled Volcanoes

Pesky Problem #1: Climate Change
The Settled Science of Global Cooling Global Warming Climate Change has real problems trying to explain away the global pattern of temperature changes over the last 50 years – especially the Arctic hot spot.

Arctic temperatures have increased and are predicted to continue to increase during this century at over twice the rate of the rest of the world.

Wikipedia – Climate Change

The simple solution provided by Ptolemy’s Paradigm is that Arctic warming results from the slow summer melting of yedoma and permafrost created in the Old World frozen zone.

The warming in the Arctic has nothing to do with CO2 levels because the New World is simply [and slowly] attempting to create a new equilibrium.

For example:

The “ice cliffs” of Kotzebue Sound [Alaska] have already melted away.

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Body of Evidence

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Buried Elephants in the Arctic

66°32′46″N 162°44′58″W

Kotzebue Sound is an arm of the Chukchi Sea in the western region of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is on the north side of the Seward Peninsula and bounded on the east by the Baldwin Peninsula. It is 100 miles (160 km) long and 70 miles (110 km) wide.

Wikipedia – Kotzebue Sound

The distribution of ice in the Old World and the New World shows that the Earth simultaneously supports Glacial and Interglacial conditions and that the “not fully understood” Ice Ages can’t be understood because they are purely imaginary.

Individual pulses of cold climate within an ice age are termed glacial periods (or, alternatively, glacials, glaciations, glacial stages, stadials, stades, or colloquially, ice ages), and intermittent warm periods within an ice age are called interglacials or interstadials.

The causes of ice ages are not fully understood for either the large-scale ice age periods or the smaller ebb and flow of glacial–interglacial periods within an ice age.

Wikipedia – Ice Age

Pesky Problem #2: Geomagnetism
The Earth’s terrestrial magnetic field was established during Ptolemy’s Old World by the “strong light of the sun” magnetising the burning zone.

In 1826 Mary Somerville became enthralled with Violet’s magnetic personality.

Mary Somerville also discovered that Green, Blue and Indigo had magnetic personalities.

Furthering her investigations, Mary Somerville discovered that Violet could increase the magnetism of needles that were already magnetic and that needles exposed to sunlight under blue glass acquired magnetism [that was retained for at least six months].

David Brewster identified experiments that had shown the magnetism of loadstones could be “nearly doubled by twenty-four hours’ exposure to the strong light of the sun”.

Malaga Bay – The Magnetic Personality of Violet

The Chinese compasses used red to point towards the stronger South pole and black towards the weaker North pole.

The Chinese colour coding suggests:

○ Ptolemy’s frozen zone was permanently tilted away from the Sun.
○ Ptolemy’s burning zone was permanently tilted towards the Sun.

○ China held the centre [or home] ground – traditionally yellow.

○ The blue Pacific Ocean is to the East of China.
○ The white snow of the Himalayas is to the West of China.

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Anaximander’s Cake

The breakdown of Ptolemy’s Paradigm and the subsequent landmass migrations have resulted in the steady decline of the the Earth’s terrestrial magnetic field.

Malaga Bay – Geomagnetism: Virtual Reality – Virtual Insanity

At present, the overall geomagnetic field is becoming weaker; the present strong deterioration corresponds to a 10–15% decline over the last 150 years and has accelerated in the past several years; geomagnetic intensity has declined almost continuously from a maximum 35% above the modern value achieved approximately 2,000 years ago. The rate of decrease and the current strength are within the normal range of variation, as shown by the record of past magnetic fields recorded in rocks.

Wikipedia – Earth’s Magnetic Field

Malaga Bay – Geomagnetism: Salvaging the Wreckage

Earth Scientists would be well advised to file and forget the embarrassing flim-flam embedded in their Dynamo Theory, Climate Change, Ice Sheet, and Ice Age models.

However, as with all good post normal science, the followers of Geomagnetism don’t let “data” or “facts” undermine a good [money spinning] franchise – especially when there is good money to made writing geo-dynamo theories and playing with geo-dynamo computer models.

Malaga Bay – Geomagnetism: Virtual Reality – Virtual Insanity

In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field. The dynamo theory describes the process through which a rotating, convecting, and electrically conducting fluid can maintain a magnetic field over astronomical time scales. A dynamo is thought to be the source of the Earth’s magnetic field and the magnetic fields of Mercury and the Jovian planets.

The complexity of dynamo modelling is so great that models of the geodynamo are limited by the current power of supercomputers, particularly because calculating the Ekman and Rayleigh number of the outer core is extremely difficult and requires a vast number of computations.

It was once believed that the dipole, which comprises much of the Earth’s magnetic field and is misaligned along the rotation axis by 11.3 degrees, was caused by permanent magnetization of the materials in the earth.

Wikipedia – Dynamo Theory

Pesky Problem #3: Human Skin Colour
Ptolemy’s Paradigm provides a latitudinal explanation for human skin colours.

Human skin color ranges from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.

Differences in skin color among individuals is caused by variation in pigmentation, which is the result of genetics (inherited from one’s biological parents), the exposure to the sun, or both.

Differences across populations evolved through natural selection, because of differences in environment, and regulate the biochemical effects of ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin.

Wikipedia – Human Skin Color

Von Luschan’s chromatic scale (VLS) is a method of classifying skin color. It is also called the von Luschan scale or von Luschan’s scale. It is named after its inventor, Felix von Luschan.

Wikipedia – Von Luschan’s Chromatic Scale

Gloger’s Rule-of-Thumb
Prolonged exposure to strong sunlight results in heavy levels of pigmentation in the “outer layer” of warm-blooded animals.

Gloger’s Corollary
Prolonged exposure to weak sunlight results in light levels of pigmentation in the “outer layer” of warm-blooded animals.

Malaga Bay – Gloger’s Rule: 2 – Homo Sapiens

The New World distribution of human skin colours provides pointers to where human and/or landmass migrations have occurred.

Pesky Problem #4: The Human Condition
Ptolemy’s Paradigm suggests humans were healthier and happier in the Old World because there were no winters,

Low levels of Vitamin D3 are associated with an increased risk of influenza.

Malaga Bay – Vitamin D3

Low levels of vitamin D, a nutrient found in fish, cheese, eggs, and many other foods, have been linked to an increased risk of various infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, HIV, fungal infections, and sepsis.

The role of Vitamin D in the prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 infection and mortality – Petre Cristian Ilie, Simina Stefanescu, and Lee Smith – Preprint

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year exhibit depressive symptoms at the same time each year, most commonly in winter. Common symptoms include sleeping too much and having little to no energy, and overeating. The condition in the summer can include heightened anxiety.

Wikipedia – Seasonal Affective Disorder

But it’s unlikely Vitamin D3 can cure the sad state of the Earth Sciences.

This entry was posted in Alaskan Muck, Astrophysics, Atmospheric Science, Earth, Fluid Mechanics, Geology, Geomagnetism, Glaciology, Gloger’s Rule, Greenland, History, Science, Solar System, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

20 Responses to Ptolemy’s Paradigm

  1. Patrick Donnelly says:

    Are you aware of the changes in Egyptian art? What of the sudden alteration of ‘worship’ of many deities becoming an awareness that there was only ever one? Add the Genesis description of day and night being ‘created’ and we can accept Alfred DeGrazia’s idea that Earth fell from inside the Sun, meaning sunlight illuminated the world and no longer a purple twilight.

  2. briar123 says:

    Ptolemy’s burning zone should be an equatorial band rather than a hemisphere as portrayed above, and it might quite possible to have another habitable zone beyond the burning zone and another freezing zone also at the south pole, based on extrapolating Ptolemy’s northern hemisphere geography. After all if Ptolemy could never know what was beyond the burning zone because of its impassibility.

    • malagabay says:

      “Ptolemy’s burning zone should be an equatorial band”

      There is no reason why it “should” be an equatorial band.

      Equatorial latitudes are famous for their rain, humidity and forests.
      e.g. Amazon, Congo…

      Equatorial latitudes are also habitable.

      The permafrost in the Northern hemisphere, the range of skin colours, and the Earth’s declining magnetic field all align with Ptolemy’s Paradigm.

      But, as always, you are very welcome to your own opinions.

      • I’ll go with briar123 on this. There is reason to think so. But first I add that Dodwell was correct on abrupt Earth tilt change ‘from a lower value’ and I support that by evidence of change in megalithic structures, from earth tilt of about 14.5 deg to possibly higher than 26deg.

        1. At low tilt equatorial is a burning land. Note Ptolemy likely only referred to the African desert.
        2. Seasonality in the habitable region to north may not be so pronounced. But that depends on what is meant. Presently in the Med there are two growing seasons, in spring and autumn. Winter is too cold for growth; so does the direct summer sun stunt any crop. A low earth tilt gives a latitude of near temperate weather all year. May explain why the lemon (known as ‘all season’ may be bearing three separate crops at one time; ripe, middling and buds).
        3. Re circumferential change: the important factor is radial which is less. With melting polar caps due to higher tilt, the polar ice is replaced by denser rock whereas the equatorial circumference is replaced by less dense water. Isostacy demands a minor increase in diameter.
        4. Tilt change is abrupt and catastrophic. Archaeology is finally coming round to accept that factor. Geological changes are great – very evident in the Med. But humans are inherently biased through cult to expect no such disasters (imposing on the gods that they not only not do it again but to also be sorry for past actions [which is right since we are the masters of the gods]).

      • malagabay says:

        “Ptolemy’s burning zone should be an equatorial band”

        ”I’ll go with briar123 on this”

        It’s difficult for Ptolemy’s burning zone to be an “equatorial band” because Ptolemy’s burning zone began South of the Equator.

        According to Ptolemy, the best recognized authority, whose geography had stood the test of thirteen hundred years, the then known world was a strip of some seventy degrees wide, mostly north of the equator, with Cadiz on the west, and farthest India or Cathay on the east, lying between the frozen and burning zones, both impassable by man.

        Historical and Geographical Notes on the Earliest Discoveries in America
        Henry Stevens – 1869

      • Yes, it would begin south of the equator and end somewhere north of it.
        It depends how one interprets the text.
        There is something else. I have noted several changes of earth tilt. Last was low to high (as per Dodwell; 2345bce). Earlier at 3550bce a reverse change took place. Research on bottom sediment by Peter DeDomenical points to that precise date as the desiccation of Africa within decades.
        See at 32:50
        Also this to corroborate dates

        Ptolemy has been accused of both plagiarising, and faking, but that also means he had earlier sources from where he picked data. Some may have been very ancient lore. RR Newton was very critical of Ptolemy; see

      • malagabay says:

        ”It depends how one interprets the text”.

        You’re entitled to your interpretation.

        According to Ptolemy, the best recognized authority, whose geography had stood the test of thirteen hundred years, the then known world was a strip of some seventy degrees wide, mostly north of the equator, with Cadiz on the west, and farthest India or Cathay on the east, lying between the frozen and burning zones, both impassable by man.

        Historical and Geographical Notes on the Earliest Discoveries in America
        Henry Stevens – 1869

  3. Marcus says:

    What about Eskimos?

  4. JDunwell says:

    How does Ptolemy’s Paradigm explain the accumulation of ice at the south pole?

  5. Yry says:

    – Periodic Twisted Rotation Physics of the Earth and by extension applies
    to all orbiting objects:

    Video of Rotation particulars (120° rotation effect) by Russian space pilot Dzhanibekov at:

    See at first 20%, see at 50% & see at last 20% of video.

    – Comment by me: it’s wild and fast! You wouldn’t want to be still living on
    the Earth in those very cycle change moments.

    @ Tim:

    – Very clever to have used skin color in association to Earth’s tilt.


    • @Yry — see this video
      The second half shows the earth, which is not a homogeneous sphere, even gravity wise. All it takes is a small period of shape instability to shift its dynamic state, ie its rotational axial tilt from its axis of precession (which may not be originally quite perpendicular to the ecliptic plane). All other planets have a different dynamic orientation.

      A hint from another site pointed to this video
      Note at 22:19 the chart on the left, with the temperature variation with latitude for the Eocene and as at present. I have no explanation, but I’d place my bet on dynamics rather than any other of the explanations proposed. But even there we are interpreting proxies.

      Also the Eocene temp may point to a uniform skin colour, but again it may have been hair colour, all being hirsute.

  6. Patrick Donnelly says:

    “Gaining ice”?

    Mammoths etc were killed in seconds, without a mark. They had uneaten grass in their mouth. Only one thing kills that way: being tossed out of a space airlock. The Earth temporarily lost atmosphere at each pole. The water in the atmosphere settled on the poles, turning what had been ‘subtropical’ into ‘arctic’. High mountain chains also gained ice. As you already know, we are talking catastrophe. The event was the expulsion from TN, aTeN, Eden, Sol.

    Venus followed but something went wrong and all life perished, with the planet rotating the wrong way. Births are dangerous. Hopefully, Venus and its erstwhile moon will protect the Earth from the next birth in 30 to 35 years, according to the New Testament

    • Marcus says:

      Lost atmosphere, or a had a mega-blizzard of extraterrestrial water, frozen to 3 Kelvin, that comprise the rings of Saturn, come raining down through the same, newly shifted, magnetic poles that charged particles still come raining down through today. At least for now.

      • I guess not. Deep frozen ice probably, from polar regions.
        A cruel schoolboy prank with a lizard in liquid nitrogen. Frozen solid instantly but shattered like glass. The frozen mammoths were still whole; nicely preserved you could say.

  7. Pingback: Ptolemy’s Paradigm: Sol Invictus Orbit | MalagaBay

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