## Ptolemy’s Paradigm: Sol Invictus Orbit

Solar Parallax observations raise a smile when they reveal [amongst other things] Earth Scientists have documented a doppelgänger of the Medieval Warm Period.

Solar Parallax Problem
In all likelihood the claim that Copernicus developed Heliocentrism “independently” of Aristarchus of Samos is a cynical contrivance.

Aristarchus of Samos (c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known heliocentric model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristarchus_of_Samos

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician, astronomer, and Catholic canon who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than Earth at its center.

In all likelihood, Copernicus developed his model independently of Aristarchus of Samos, an ancient Greek astronomer who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

Wikipedia – Nicolaus Copernicus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus

But, either way:

Astronomers determine the Sun-Earth distance using the Solar Parallax.

After Copernicus proposed his heliocentric system, with the Earth in revolution around the Sun, it was possible to build a model of the whole Solar System without scale.

To ascertain the scale, it is necessary only to measure one distance within the Solar System, e.g., the mean distance from the Earth to the Sun (now called an astronomical unit, or AU).

When found by triangulation, this is referred to as the solar parallax, the difference in position of the Sun as seen from the Earth’s centre and a point one Earth radius away, i. e., the angle subtended at the Sun by the Earth’s mean radius.

The currently accepted value of solar parallax is 8″.794 143.

Wikipedia – Parallax
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parallax#Solar_parallax

And archaeoastronomers try to avoid addressing Ptolemy’s Solar Parallax that placed the Earth 1,210 Earth-radii from the Sun instead of the “modern” 23,491 Earth radii.

Ptolemy had adopted 1210 Earth-radii for the distance of the Sun, corresponding to Solar parallax 2’ 51”.

(The modern measurement of the Sun’s distance is 93 million miles, or 23,491 Earth radii, corresponding to solar parallax 8”.8.)

The Obliquity of The Ecliptic – George F Dodwell – 1963
https://web.archive.org/web/20140614112032/http://www.setterfield.org/Dodwell/Dodwell_Manuscript_6.html

The archaeoastronomers can’t argue Ptolemy’s parallax was a one-off aberration.

The Obliquity of The Ecliptic – George F Dodwell – 1963
https://web.archive.org/web/20140614112032/http://www.setterfield.org/Dodwell/Dodwell_Manuscript_6.html

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Sol Invictus

And they can’t argue Ptolemy’s [water cooled] Earth was impossibly close to the Sun.

Comet Lovejoy was deemed [by the mainstream] to be a dirty snowball that would meet a “fiery fate” as it travelled through “the several million degree solar corona” at perihelion some 120,000 kilometres [or 140,000 km – depending upon source] above the stellar surface.

Then Settled Science started to experience a meltdown.

Firstly, the dirty snowball theory went into meltdown as Comet Lovejoy survived the “several million-degree solar corona” and re-appeared without its tail.

Secondly, Newtonian Gravitational Theory went into meltdown as the Sun failed to gravitationally capture the cometary tail [which just followed “a straight line from the time it was ejected”] whilst Comet Lovejoy [travelling at 536 km/s] looped sharply around the Sun.

Thirdly, Newtonian Tidal Theory went into meltdown because “tidal forces failed to disintegrate Comet Lovejoy as it breached the Sun’s 1,238,390 kilometre Roche Limit for “average” rigid comets by [about] 1,118,390 kilometres [90%].

Then, in a confounding gesture of defiance, Comet Lovejoy became “even brighter and bolder” as it moved away from the Sun.

Malaga Bay – The Lovejoy Meltdown
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/06/01/the-lovejoy-meltdown/

It is very possible that the Earth is spinning in a cloud of gas that fluoresces when it is penetrated by the solar wind and cosmic rays.

You might like to consider why the solar spectra observations from the SOHO spacecraft [orbiting at the Earth-Sun L1 point] “do not lend themselves so readily” to being released to the public.

Three points from Eric Dollard:

You can’t see the sun in free space
There are no light years as there is no light
All the theories collapse when you can’t see the stars in outer space

Malaga Bay – Living in a Light Bulb
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/living-in-a-light-bulb/

Especially when Ptolemy described an uninhabitable burning zone.

According to Ptolemy, the best recognized authority, whose geography had stood the test of thirteen hundred years, the then known world was a strip of some seventy degrees wide, mostly north of the equator, with Cadiz on the west, and farthest India or Cathay on the east, lying between the frozen and burning zones, both impassable by man.

Historical and Geographical Notes on the Earliest Discoveries in America
Henry Stevens – 1869

https://archive.org/details/historicalgeogra00stev/page/n32/mode/1up

A burning zone that’s clearly left it’s mark on the face of the Earth.

Western Australia does have radioactive siliceous surface deposits known as ‘grey-billy’ or ‘laterites’, the iron rich variation which are also frequently radioactive.

Malaga Bay – Vitrified Forts – Louis Hissink – Laterite Thinking
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/05/09/vitrified-forts-louis-hissink-laterite-thinking/

Laterite is both a soil and a rock type rich in iron and aluminum and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.

Nearly all laterites are of rusty-red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. They develop by intensive and prolonged weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils. The majority of the land area containing laterites is between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

Wikipedia – Laterite
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laterite

Virtually all sand grains are coated with a thin glaze (varnish) of iron-rich clay minerals; it is this that gives the sand its colour.

Malaga Bay – Fifty Shades of Sand – Gary Gilligan
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2016/04/26/guest-post-by-gary-gilligan/

A study based on 18 years of data from ESA’s Cluster spacecraft … found iron ionsin the near-Earth solar wind.

Iron in the Solar Wind and Earth’s Magnetosphere
ESA – 19 March 2020

https://sci.esa.int/web/cluster/-/iron-in-the-solar-wind-and-earth-s-magnetosphere

“Iron in the solar wind tends to be seen in higher charge states, so we need this wider, higher energy range to understand the solar wind in particular and its impact on Earth’s magnetic environment.”

Iron is everywhere in Earth’s vicinity, suggest two decades of Cluster data
ESA – 19 March 2020

Malaga Bay – Kepler’s 160 Minute Solar Cycle
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/07/21/keplers-160-minute-solar-cycle/

The Iron Layer has three components with “a sporadic E layer at 105 km, an intermediate layer at 118 km, and the region above 160 km.”

Malaga Bay – Atmospheric Layers
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/05/27/atmospheric-layers/

The Earth’s terrestrial magnetic field was established during Ptolemy’s Old World by the “strong light of the sun” magnetising the burning zone.

The breakdown of Ptolemy’s Paradigm and the subsequent landmass migrations have resulted in the steady decline of the the Earth’s terrestrial magnetic field.

Sol Invictus Orbit
The Solar Parallax dataset can simply be accepted at face value and Ptolemy’s data point adjusted by the 1,180 year Chronology Correction alongside a 100 year adjustment to the suspect Ulugh Beg data point.

Given the date range of the Antonine Plague [165-180 AD] it’s not unreasonable to adjust the calendar alignment so that 220 AD equates to 1400 CE i.e. an offset of 1,180 years.

Malaga Bay – 1400 Years of Fabricated Frosts
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2021/03/01/1400-years-of-fabricated-frosts/

The suspicion that the calendar alignments are out of kilter is underlined by the mainstream assertion that the Ulugh Beg Observatory was levelled by “religious fanatics in 1449”. The levelling by “religious fanatics in 1449” might well be a Gradualist euphemism for a natural disaster in [say] 1349 during the Hecker Horizion.

Malaga Bay – The Dodwell Dead End

The adjusted dataset provides a clear picture of the Sol Invictus Orbit.

A surprising aspect of the adjusted data is it’s 4th order polynomial projection that suggests the Earth’s Sol Invictus Orbit existed [in round numbers] between 850 CE and 1350 CE.

During the Sol Invictus Orbit it’s reported Earth’s shadow stretched beyond Mercury.

Thus Abraham ben Chija says that the shadow of the earth extends beyond the orbit of Mercury but does not reach that of Venus. Ptolemy never mentions the parallaxes of Mercury and Venus, as to which nothing was known…

History of the Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler
John Louis Emil Dreyer – 1906

https://archive.org/details/historyofplaneta0000unse/page/261/mode/1up

Abraham bar Ḥiyya ha-Nasi (c. 1070 – 1136 or 1145) … was a Catalan Jewish mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who resided in Barcelona.

Wikipedia – Abraham bar Hiyya
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_bar_Hiyya

The Earth’s Sol Invictus Orbit provides a very viable explanation for the Medieval Warm Period and it’s doppelgänger retro-reprise after 1,200 years as the Roman Warm Period.

The Roman Warm Period, or Roman Climatic Optimum, was a period of unusually warm weather in Europe and the North Atlantic that ran from approximately 250 BC to AD 400.

Wikipedia – Roman Warm Period
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roman_Warm_Period&oldid=1000994377

Soldiers, slaves and manual workers generally had tunics to a little above the knee …

Wikipedia – Tunic
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunic

The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region lasting from c. 950 to c. 1250.

Wikipedia – Medieval Warm Period
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Medieval_Warm_Period&oldid=1007056025

The establishment of the Sol Invictus Orbit [around the Sun] provides support for The Saturn Myth [and similar narratives] in the period before 850 CE.

https://archive.org/details/TalbottDavidTheSaturnMyth1980/mode/2up

The clear implication is that [both] Jupiter and Saturn are ejecting Moons [and Cometary Blobs] into the inner Solar System where they finally settle to become terrestrial planets.

In 1992 John Gray realised that Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus and in 2015 it’s evident The Earth is from Saturn – The Moon is from Jupiter.

Malaga Bay – The Earth is from Saturn – The Moon is from Jupiter
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/04/08/the-earth-is-from-saturn-the-moon-is-from-jupiter/

Arguably, the Solar System played Heliosphere Roulette with it’s newly acquired planets.

Malaga Bay – Fiery Trigons: 1st Millennium Diagnosis
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/05/15/fiery-trigons-1st-millennium-diagnosis/

While the Greeks considered Cronus a cruel and tempestuous force of chaos and disorder, believing the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans, the Romans took a more positive and innocuous view of the deity, by conflating their indigenous deity Saturn with Cronus.

Wikipedia – Cronus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cronus#Roman_mythology_and_later_culture

Sol Invictus was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. On 25 December AD 274, the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official religion alongside the traditional Roman cults.

Wikipedia – Sol Invictus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_Invictus

The limited lifespan of the Sol Invictus Orbit indicates the Sol Invictus coin chronology is erroneously extended beyond 170 AD [i.e. 1350 CE minus 1,180 years].

Ponder the possibility the Carthaginian-Berbers decided to migrate lock, stock and obelisk to Europe when North Africa became parched desert.

Malaga Bay – C for Colossal
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/09/04/c-for-colossal/

Berrens deals with coin-evidence of Imperial connection to the Solar cult. Sol is depicted sporadically on imperial coins in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, then more frequently from Septimius Severus [193 to 211] onwards until AD 325/6. … Augustus was posthumously depicted with radiate crown, as were living emperors from Nero (after AD 65) to Constantine [306 to 337].

Wikipedia – Sol Invictus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sol_Invictus

There are several events that [alone or in combination] may have played a part in ending the Sol Invictus Orbit in [about] 1350 CE.

Prime Suspect #1 Comet Negra
Prime Suspect #2 Comet Tempel-Tuttle
Prime Suspect #3 Comet Halley

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Prime Suspects

Retro-calculations suggest the Earth experienced a very close encounter with Comet Halley in 1378. Whether the appearances of Comet Halley during the Hecker Horizon are purely coincidental or causal is open to debate.

Malaga Bay – The Hecker Horizon: Cometary Coincidences
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/01/11/the-hecker-horizon-cometary-coincidences/

The [divergent] δ18O data values suggests the Late Paleocene Event only occurred in 1389 CE

The additional iron suggests an inbound iron object disintegrated over the Southern Ocean. The Campo del Cielo iron meteorites provide tangible support for this line of argument.

Malaga Bay – The Late Paleocene Event
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/06/29/the-late-paleocene-event/

Amongst these contradictions is the peculiarity that the [claimed] 9th century Leiden Aratea rear view of Orion with the “pelt on the left arm” contradicts the modern night sky.

This peculiarity could be accounted for by fakes, frauds, and faults
or
The Solar System performed a fly-past of the Orion constellation.

Malaga Bay – The Orion Fly-By
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/02/10/the-orion-fly-by/

The [so called] supernova event of 185 AD may have also been a factor because the 1,180 year Chronology Correction moves the date of the event forward to 1365 CE.

Supernova SN 185 is scientifically important because it’s [supposed] remnants suggest a “titanic explosion” occurred in the “hollowed-out cavity”

Malaga Bay – Supernova SN 185
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/01/01/supernova-sn-185/

SN 185 was a transient astronomical event observed in AD 185, likely a supernova. … This “guest star” was observed by Chinese astronomers in the Book of Later Han, and might have been recorded in Roman literature. It remained visible in the night sky for eight months. This is believed to be the first supernova for which records exist.

Wikipedia – SN185
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_185

The Houhanshu of the Later Han dynasty records the appearance of a ‘guest star’ in AD 185. … Here we show that a reinterpretation of the relevant passage in the Houhan-shu is inconsistent with the supernova interpretation, but suggests instead that the guest star was a comet.

Identification of the Guest Star of AD 185 as a Comet rather than a Supernova
YN Chin and YL Huang – Nature 371 (6496): 398-399 – 1994

https://web.archive.org/web/20131105121538/http://mail.tku.edu.tw/einmann/papers/SN185.ps

Malaga Bay – The Other Big Bang Theory
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/04/25/the-other-big-bang-theory/

There are clear indications that orbital distances in the Solar System began to increase around 1400 CE as the Jupiter-Saturn Great Mutation Cycle moved into it’s second phase.

Malaga Bay – Comet Venus: The Shrinking Violet
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/07/14/comet-venus-the-shrinking-violet/

In the grand scheme of Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions the Great Mutation Cycle ensures a Fiery Trigon arrives in Aries every ~ 800 years.

Malaga Bay – Fiery Trigons: 3rd Millennium Prognosis
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/05/16/fiery-trigons-3rd-millennium-prognosis/

Lastly:

The Inflating Earth would naturally drift away from the Sun as it’s density decreased.

Malaga Bay – Solar Wind Turbines
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/01/23/solar-wind-turbines/

Malaga Bay – Forced Vortex Demonstration
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2012/09/19/forced-vortex-demonstration/

The “hot air balloon” overcomes the effects of gravity by changing its density.

Malaga Bay – Inventions and Deceptions – Gravitational Mass Attraction
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/02/07/inventions-and-deceptions-gravitational-mass-attraction/

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Anaximander’s Cake

The slow density drift ensured the Inflating Earth experienced a bumpy ride as it crossed the orbits of Mercury and Venus en-route to becoming the third rock from the Sun.

It was impossible to observe Transits of Venus [across the face of the Sun] until Venus moved to it’s inside track orbit at the Hecker Horizon i.e. 1639 – 243 = 1396.

Malaga Bay – Comet Venus: The Shrinking Violet
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2020/07/14/comet-venus-the-shrinking-violet/

The total of these evidences indicates the alternate and intermittent periods of violent erosion such as would dismember animal remains and splinter trees, interspersed with other periods of comparative quiescence so as to allow the growth of “forests” and peat bogs in the same area.

Archaeological Aspects of the Alaska Muck Deposits – Frank C Hibben – 1941
New Mexico Anthropologist, Volume 5, Number 4

https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1189&context=nm_anthropologist

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Layer Cake

Malaga Bay – Repulsive Bodies
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2015/03/26/repulsive-bodies/

A quadrupole Earth attracts the Moon at apogee but repels at the Moon perigee.

Malaga Bay – The Atomic Comet: Electric Epilogue
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2017/10/26/the-atomic-comet-electric-epilogue/

The inner core of a Rankine Vortex is a solid-like rotational “forced vortex”.

The outer circulatory spiral of the planetary disc is an irrotational “free vortex” which generates a centripetal force [which is commonly known as “gravity”] that will primarily sequence the planetary disc based upon planetary density.

Malaga Bay – Solar System – Rankine Vortex
https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/01/17/solar-system-rankine-vortex/

But, as always:

Review the evidence and draw your own conclusions.

### 18 Responses to Ptolemy’s Paradigm: Sol Invictus Orbit

1. Patrick Donnelly says:

I am not sure that ‘Ptolemy’ could discern a shadow? That would require the orbits to be exactly in the same plane.

2. Patrick Donnelly says:

Earth based observations of the ‘surface’ or photosphere of the Sun shows that there is clearly discernible detail of EM radiation aka light. Fluorescence on the Earthdoes not create that. It may act as aan additional filter.

So, no space observations of the photosphere exist? Really?

3. Patrick Donnelly says:

Axial tilt:
The planets are set in pairs, one with little axial tilt, the other with 20 degrees or more. Neptune and Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter, Apollo, destroyed and Mars, Earth and Venus. The next planet will be ‘Saturn’ tilted. Mercury is the rogue moon from the Venus disaster.

4. Patrick Donnelly says:

Venus was born in the 1300s…. Mercury being its extruded moon, left in its original orbit, while Venus wandered to its current orbit. These effects caused Apollo to discharge to Mars with both expanding and suffering, resulting in the ‘death of Abel’, observed from Earth and recorded in the Testament of miraculous events. Halley’s Comet was the result as you carefully show.

5. Patrick Donnelly says:

Gravity is a tiny force, when compared to Electromagnetism. It is the repulsive force of unreleased aether. We use released aether and can release it with sufficient force. Triplet doorways often have the middle one higher than the others: Force. Gravity works as a square of the distance. This means that the area of a volume, like a planet, blocks the unreleased aether. Nothing to do with mass, which is a cubic quality. It is an area based effect. This was shown at Pisa by some Italian bloke. Two similar shapes but with different masses, showed that Newton was deceiving others.

Orbits are driven as in a motor, by the giant filament of AC which powers the stars local to Sol.

6. Patrick Donnelly says:

The NT is a parable using 12 years and 30 years the orbital periods of the two parts of the Bethlehem star. Midway between the 60 years will come the reversal of polarity of the filament with effects on all planets and a birth of a new planet.

The planet is in locked orbit inside Sol aka Saturn, the name that those form Sirius use for Sol. Seeing a planet similar in appearance to Saturn, humans named it after the planet that is the focus of the star we now call Sol. Where do stars come from? They are the focus of z pinches from the filament. Once large enough, larger than Jupiter, they are stars that create matter inside the star and eventually they will eject those matter aggregations.

7. Yry says:

First: I sense it will become a major reference work for all those dedicated
to making sense out of Chronology issues in the West, Russia and Asia.

Second: datewise, it fits in with my suspicions here and there in northern
South America, Africa at large and possibly with southern Siberia.

Lastly: it fits in with other issues I’m involved in.

A Grand Work ! Thank you.

8. johnm33 says:

Couple of questions, was the size of the sun measured too? and a 3 part any idea how long an orbit would last that close in to the sun if it was sol/jupiter/saturn?
I have read somewhere, and some years ago that the southern hemisphere once experienced no night/day cycle due to an incoming ‘star’ at that time I could not imagine the mechanism for this, then with your post on m54 it seemed possible that a number of encounters could have happened, now Gareth Samuel has introduced me to a new possibility, about 11min in. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44ln520FJOQ&t=623s
South Africa has a flora all of it’s own, but it’s fauna seems to have migrated in from the north, perhaps the burning zone just had too high a wet bulb temperature to sustain mammalian life. Australia has always seemed to me to be an archipelago buried under an overburden of sediment, now I’m thinking that may be of a much more recent origin, does this tie in with it’s geology? An island chain with the cooling effect of the ocean would have perfectly suited animal life.

• malagabay says:

“was the size of the sun measured too?
Don’t know.

“how long an orbit would last that close in to the sun if it was sol/jupiter/saturn?”
Don’t know.

• Patrick Donnelly says:

Australia, the flattest continent, has been inundated. Sediment has flattened it while also covering fossils of animals rolled and dumped in a shambles. Trillions of tons of forest, now coals also buried. A more recent and much smaller tsunami can be sen in Google Earth, along the NorthEast coast, 200 metre high ripples of titanium etc heavy mineral sands. I trace them back to Taranaki, the volcano that finished off the Chinese Fleet

9. Patrick Donnelly says:

“Less dense bead orbit the planet”

Gravity does not depend upon mass. The Pisa experiment shows that. Two balls of differnt weight, same descent time. Less dense would mean greater velocity away….

• malagabay says:

Try performing the experiment with a more viscous fluid than air

For example:

Water provides results over remarkably short distances.

The denser thimble containing sand accelerates more rapidly than the thimble containing rice.

The results falsify the hypothesis that “all objects in a given gravity field fall at the same rate”.

10. Patrick Donnelly says:

I do hope the picture you show is just a ‘Getty Images’ type thing?

Fluids have natural currents. A river has 27 times the velocity just under the surface in the middle of it… than at the sides….

The whole point about g is that is best measured in a vacuum, ie less fluid resistance. Did the same experiement work when the heavier object was dropped close to a side?

How was the quiessence of a thick fluid measured as to equality in the entire volume or at least through the columns to be used by the objects?

This is distressing to me, that you can post or believe this. My hero is dead….

• malagabay says:

The whole point about g is that is best measured in a vacuum, ie less fluid resistance.

When you lower the fluid viscosity then the distance required to produce “noticeable results” increases.

It’s worth noting the “vacuum chamber” experiments are performed over very short distance i.e. too short a distance.

Try the experiments for yourself using identical hollow objects (such as ping-pong balls) in air and water.

It gets interesting with three ping-pong balls – one full of air, one full of rice and one full of sand.

PS: I overcame my cognitive dissonance by performing the experiments.

• malagabay says:

PPS.

When I was researching this topic I noticed:

1) The “experiments” were usually performed under “circus ring” conditions rather than “laboratory” conditions.
2) I didn’t encounter the “experiment” being performed using identically shaped objects with different densities.
3) I didn’t encounter the “experiment” being performed in water.

11. johnm33 says:

I’m so pleased to see you back, and the act of vandalism reversed.
Something has to be wrong with the maths, maybe mine?, but at 1,210 radii we would be closer to the sun than mercury now is by some distance.
Expressed as radii I find the distance to the sun and the Earths diameter too close to not suggest some power/field at work, and find myself wondering if a small expansion of one measure led to the diminution of the other.