Tektites: 1 – The Tale of the Tektites

Professor Marcello Truzzi is credited with originating the phrase:

Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcello_Truzzi

That phrase is particularly apt in the context of an Inflating Earth because acceptance of this concept requires the trashing of many mainstream myths and beliefs [which are deeply held].

Unfortunately, Marcello Truzzi was a sociologist who didn’t understand that in science a hypothesis can never be proved – it can only ever be falsified.

However, within the context of the Inflating Earth there is some extraordinary evidence: Tektites.

Tektites

Tektites are gravel-size bodies that are composed of black, green, brown or gray, natural glass that are formed from terrestrial debris ejected during extraterrestrial impacts.
They are characterized by
1. A fairly homogeneous composition;
2. An extremely low content of water and other volatiles;
3. An abundant lechatelierite; [silica glass]
4. A general lack of microscopic crystals known as microlites and chemical relation to the local bedrock or local sediments; and
5. Their distribution within geographically extensive strewn fields.

splash-form tektites

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tektite

Tektites are associated with four extensive strewn fields [Australasian, Central European, Ivory Coast, and North American] and are generally classified into four types:

1. Microtektites: less than 1 millimetre – typically found in deep-sea sediments

2. Splash-form: centimetre-sized spheres, ellipsoids, teardrops and dumbbells

3. Aerodynamically shaped “buttons”: typically from the Australasian strewn field

4. Muong Nong: irregular, layered, over 10 centimetres, weighing up to 29 kilograms

Basically, tektites are extraordinary objects produced by extraordinary impact events.

Tektite Strewn Field Map

Different Directions – Samples of Impact Rocks
http://go2add.com/meteorites/impactrocks.php

The mainstream is fairly good at providing confusing descriptions of these extraordinary objects but they are reluctant to acknowledge that tektites have only ever been produced by a few impact events that packed a truly extraordinary “hypervelocity” punch.

Their similarity in beryllium-10 isotope composition indicates that moldavites, Australites, and Ivorites consist of near surface and loosely consolidated terrestrial sediments melted by hypervelocity impacts.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldavite

In fact in many instances the mainstream becomes cagey and/or strange.

The Wikipedia description of tektites has a very curious wording [see above] in point four which seems to obscure the fact that tektites “lack… chemical relation to the local bedrock or local sediments”. In other words, the mainstream can’t really identify [or date] the impact site that generated the tektites.

The mainstream is strangely keen to associate the black Bediasite tektites [from Texas – around 1,800 kilometres from Chesapeake Bay] and the green Georgiaites [from Georgia – about 700 kilometres from Chesapeake Bay] with the same impact event [Chesapeake Bay] even though the tektites are of different colours and separated by around 1,000 kilometres.

“Bediasites are part of the 34-million-year-old North American strewnfield coming from the Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Two strewnfields and tektite groups are associated with this impact: the black Bediasites in Texas and the green Georgiaites in Georgia.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bediasite

Georgiaite and Bediasite Tektites
http://tektites.co.uk/bediasites-georgiaites.html

Wikipedia is also keen to associate the Ivory Coast tektites with the 8 kilometre Bosumtwi impact crater which is not an extraordinary impact crater – especially in relation to the Vredefort crater in South Africa which is over 300 kilometres wide.

“Ivory Coast strewnfield (Lake Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, age: 1 million years)”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tektite
“Lake Bosumtwi (also spelled Bosomtwe), situated within an ancient meteorite impact crater, is approximately 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) across and the only natural lake in Ghana.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Bosumtwi

This is rather strange because collectors have noted that “Ivory Coast Tektites appear to be similar in appearance to Indochinites”.

Ivory Coast Tektites and Indochinites
http://tektites.co.uk/ivory-coast.html

However, the worste example of mainstream obscuration relates to the Muong Nong tektites [from Laos in Indochina] which they attempt to “gloss over” by including in the Australasian strewnfield.

Australasian strewnfield (no associated crater identified, age: 0.77-0.78 million years):
-Australites (Australia, dark, mostly black);
-Indochinites (South East Asia, dark, mostly black);
-Rizalite (Philippines, black).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tektites#Occurrence

Tektite map

http://www.utexas.edu/tmm/npl/meteorites/tektites/tektite_info.html

Digging around the web sites that sell tektites provides a few clues as to why the mainstream is trying to “gloss over” the Muong Nong tektites:

Muong Nong Tektites are peculiar beasts.
They originated as pools of glass, fused from the local soils somewhere near ground zero. There is no evidence that they left the ground–just huge, layered blocks of tektite glass, the fragmented remnants of literal puddles.

http://www.tektitesource.com/tektite_catalog.html

Muong Nong Tektite

http://www.meteorites-for-sale.com/tektite/muong-nong-ft-557.html

Muong Nong Tektite - Section
http://www.utexas.edu/tmm/npl/meteorites/tektites/lrg_images/muong_nong_thin.html

More interestingly, a published paper on Muong Nong tektites indicates that their key characteristic is their “enrichment in volatiles” and that “no genetic relationship between Muong Nong tektites and normal splash forms has yet been established”.

Muong Nong type tektites from the moldavite and North American strewn fields?
Christian Koeberl
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth – 1986

Muong Nong type tektites are a very important group of tektites because they differ from splash-form tektites in several important characteristics (e.g., volatile element enrichment, major- and minor-element inhomogeneities, bubbles, inclusions, layered and sometimes brecciated structure).

They seem to have experienced a lower peak temperature and pressure, thus preserving the precursor material much better than the splash forms do. They lead to important conclusions about the impact process, especially regarding the behaviour of the trace elements during impact melting. To date they have been found only within the Australasian strewn field. Finding such tektites within other strewn fields would be very important in proving a genetic relationship between them and splash-form tektites. Two samples, one bediasite (from the North American strewn field) and one moldavite (from the Czechoslovakian strewn field), that show some Muong Nong features (layered structure) have been analyzed for major and minor as well as trace elements to test for the presence of chemical Muong Nong signatures. Although these three samples show a somewhat larger internal variation of major elements than normal splash-form tektites, this variation is not as large as that of typical Muong Nong tektites. Likewise, there is no enrichment in volatiles (at least no significant one), which is one of the most obvious characteristics of Muong Nong type. Thus these samples deviate to some extent from splash-forms, but do not constitute real Muong Nong tektites, so no genetic relationship between Muong Nong tektites and normal splash forms has yet been established beyond doubt.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/JB091iB13p0E253/abstract

The unpalatable truth for the mainstream is that Muong Nong tektites are a completely different class of objects that:
a) Never left the ground
b) Are enriched with volatile elements
c) Experienced lower peak temperature and pressure
d) Contain inhomogeneities, bubbles, inclusions and brecciated structures
d) Are only found in Indochina.

The obvious implication is that Muong Nong tektites have been ejected from within the Earth.

Breccia
A rock composed of angular fragments embedded in a fine-grained matrix.
Breccias form from explosive volcanic ejections, the compaction of talus, or plate tectonic processes. Breccias are different from conglomerates in that the fragments they contain are angular instead of rounded.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/breccia

Now that we have a handle on tektites we are equipped to review the history of the Inflating Earth and the outgassing of oxygen and hydrogen [mainly in the form of water].

Reviewing the biodiversity graph [based upon the fossil record] it appears evident that an event occurred about 542 million years that triggered the sudden outgassing of oxygen from the Earth that propelled the first wave of biodiversity.

Phanerozoic_biodiversity
Biodiversity as shown by the fossil record

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extinction_events

The obvious hypothesis [from my perspective] is that an extraordinary “hypervelocity” impact event occurred 542 million years ago that punched deep [enough] into the crust [of the Earth] and released oxygen and hydrogen into the atmosphere at high pressure [a bit like bursting a balloon].

Coincidentally, an extraordinary impact crater [about 600 kilometres wide] has been identified in Australia which is estimated to be about 545 million years old.

The Massive Australian Precambrian/Cambrian Impact Structure also known as MAPCIS is a proposed impact structure based upon presentations presented by Daniel P. Connelly at Geological Society of America meetings. Its center is located approximately equidistant between Uluru (Ayers Rock) and Mount Conner in Australias’ Northern Territory.

An outermost visible ring is 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) in diameter is claimed to be the result of undefined “far field stresses.”

The crater itself is smaller at approximately 600 km (370 mi) in diameter.

Connelly argues that the age of this hypothetical impact is approximately 545 mya which puts it near the end of the Neoproterozoic Era.

If confirmed as an impact crater, it would be the largest on earth.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massive_Australian_Precambrian/Cambrian_Impact_Structure

The small size of the Australite tektites is suggestive of an associated high velocity outgassing event that was of sufficient ferocity to “propel them just out of the Earth’s atmosphere, so they then re-entered the atmosphere and underwent a rare secondary melting.”

Australite

Australites are tektites found in Australia. They are mostly dark or black, and have shapes including discs and bowls that are not seen in other tektites. NASA used the shape of “flanged button” australites in designing re-entry modules for the Apollo program in the 1960s.

The primary forms of australites are sphere, oval, boat, dumbbell and teardrop.
Australites are smaller and different in shape to other tektites.

Their initial velocity was higher than other tektites: enough to propel them just out of the Earth’s atmosphere, so they then re-entered the atmosphere and underwent a rare secondary melting.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australite

Moving forward in time through the geologic we encounter the sudden initiation of seafloor spreading about 180 million years ago.

Earth seafloor crust age - 1996

Age of oceanic crust
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seafloor_spreading

Earth seafloor crust expansion

The obvious hypothesis [from my perspective] is that another extraordinary “hypervelocity” impact event occurred 180 million years that was vastly more powerful than the previous “hypervelocity” impact event that occurred in Australia about 545 million years ago.

The other observation is that this impact site is not generally recognised as an impact site because the Australian crater is “the largest on earth”.

Luckily, the seafloor age map provides a vital clue as to its location.

If the seafloor expansion is regressed back to the first stages [marked in blue on the map] of expansion then two area of blue are revealed at opposite sides of the Earth.

Earth crust with new seafloor removed

The Gulf of Mexico appears as a clean entry wound while there appears to be a messy exit wound on the opposite side of the Earth in the region of Indochina.

Suddenly everything tumbles into place.

Bediasite and Muong Nong Tektites

An extreme “hypervelocity” impact event occurred about 180 million years ago which formed the Gulf of Mexico and produced the Texan Bediasite and Ivory Coast tektites.

The “hypervelocity” impact object travelled through the Earth and exited in the region of Indochina at a “high velocity” and produced the Indochinites and the unique Muong Nong Tektites.

The Gulf of Mexico is a rough oval that is approximately 1,500 kilometres wide and is “filled with sedimentary rocks and debris”. The geological consensus is that the Gulf of Mexico appeared in the Late Triassic about 200 million years ago – just before the seafloor started spreading 180 million years ago].

The origin of the Gulf of Mexico has been a long-standing point of controversy between geologists. Several theories have been presented to explain the “hole” in the Bullard-type jigsaw fit of the continental masses. All involve plate tectonic reconstructions but none have proven fully satisfactory.

I propose that the origin was not due to traditional mechanisms from below, but to a huge cosmic impact from above.

Circular morphology is one of the dominant features of impact craters, and one can hardly miss this characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico.

Is the Gulf’s Origin Heaven Sent?
MICHAEL S. STANTON
http://www.aapg.org/explorer/2002/12dec/gom_impact.pdf

Gulf of Mexico

The consensus among geologists, who have studied the geology of the Gulf of Mexico, is that prior to Late Triassic, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist. Before the Late Triassic, the area now occupied by the Gulf of Mexico consisted of dry land, which included continental crust that now underlies Yucatan, within the middle of the large supercontinent of Pangea.

In 2002 geologist Michael Stanton published a speculative essay suggesting an impact origin for the Gulf of Mexico at the close of the Permian, which could have caused the Permian–Triassic extinction event.

However, Gulf Coast geologists do not regard this hypothesis as having any credibility. Instead they overwhelmingly accept plate tectonics, not an asteroid impact, as having created the Gulf of Mexico as illustrated by papers authored by Kevin Mickus and others.

This hypothesis is not to be confused with the Chicxulub Crater, a large impact crater on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico on the Yucatan Peninsula.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_of_mexico

The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Ma (252.2 ± 0.5 to 201.3 ± 0.2 million years ago).

It is the first period of the Mesozoic Era, and lies between the Permian and Jurassic periods. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triassic

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, informally known as the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred 252.28 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

It is the Earth’s most severe known extinction event, with up to 96% of all marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species becoming extinct.

It is the only known mass extinction of insects.
Some 57% of all families and 83% of all genera became extinct.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permian%E2%80%93Triassic_extinction_event

Overall, it seems very likely that an extreme “hypervelocity” impact event in the Gulf of Mexico [with its associated exit wound event in Indochina] initiated:

1) The Permian–Triassic extinction event.

2) Initiated seafloor spreading and the break-up of Pangaea.

3) Initiated planetary outgassing that took atmospheric oxygen levels above 20% for the first time.

That is the Tale of the Tektites… until this is more to tell.

Concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere over the last 1000 million years

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earths_atmosphere

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