If you’ve ever felt the Earth Sciences are rather special then you’ve arrived at the right place.
On the other hand:
If you believe the Earth Sciences are entirely based upon robust science then you’ve arrived at the wrong place and you should seek a safe space elsewhere.
Back in 1976 Leona Libby documented the relationship between temperature and δ18O (Pee Dee Belemnite) ‰ values in German Oak.
The relationship is quite straight forward:
A rise in δ18O (PDB) ‰ values is associated with a rise in temperatures
A fall in δ18O (PDB) ‰ values is associated with a fall in temperatures.
A linear relationship was measured in Greenland during the 1990s:
A rise in δ18O (PDB) ‰ values is linked to a rise in temperatures
A fall in δ18O (PDB) ‰ values is linked to a fall in temperatures.
However, way back in 1953 the awfully clever Epstein et al created a formula that turns the natural world upside-down by defining an non-linear inverse relationship between δ18O values and temperature for calcium carbonate between 9° C and 29° C.
This awfully clever formula mimics “inorganically precipitated calcium carbonate”.
According to Epstein et al between 9° C and 29° C:
A rise in δ18O (PDB) ‰ values is linked to a fall in temperatures
A fall in δ18O (PDB) ‰ values is linked to a rise in temperatures.
The relationship between temperature and O18 content relative to that for a Cretaceous belemnite of the Pee Dee formation previously reported (Epstein, Buchsbaum, Lowenstam, and Urey, 1951) has been re-determined using modified procedures for removing organic matter from shells, and is found to be
t(°C) = 16.5 – 4.3δ + 0.14δ2
where δ is the difference in per mil of the Osup>18 to Osup>16 ratio between the sample and reference gas.
The new relationship agrees with that determined by McCrea (1950) for inorganically precipitated calcium carbonate.
Carbonate-carbon dioxide exchange experiments were done to determine the direct and indirect effects of organic matter in the shell on the mass spectrometer analyses.
Epstein, S.; Buchsbaum, R.; Lowenstam, H.; Urey, H. (1953).
“Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale”.
Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 64: 1315–1325.
This [upside-down] inverse relationship is [indirectly] applied to “sediment cores”.
And, of course, this [upside-down] inverse relationship is also deployed in “climate change”.
It’s only by employing this [upside-down] inverse relationship that the mainstream has been able to conjure up the Last Ice Age, Quaternary Glaciation and the current Holocene Interglacial.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.
The current Holocene interglacial began at the end of the Pleistocene, about 11,700 years ago.
So what happens to the “climate change” narrative if the measurements from the Greenland GRIP drill site really define the relationship between δ18O values and temperature?
Firstly, it means the “sediment cores” used to create the last “five million years of Climate Change” were deposited in Ptolemy’s “burning” zone.
According to Ptolemy, the best recognized authority, whose geography had stood the test of thirteen hundred years, the then known world was a strip of some seventy degrees wide, mostly north of the equator, with Cadiz on the west, and farthest India or Cathay on the east, lying between the frozen and burning zones, both impassable by man.
Historical and Geographical Notes on the Earliest Discoveries in America
Henry Stevens – 1869
Secondly, it really confuses the Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum.
The ooze from the Maud Rise [about 450 kilometres from Antarctica] ironically includes an anomalous Late Paleocene Thermal Minimum while the ooze from the Shatsky Rise in the North Pacific [East of Japan] displays an anomalous upward spike in temperatures.
These cores also provide [more detailed] support for Ptolemy’s “burning” zone.
I’m grateful to Louis Hissink for introducing me to another wonderful can of worms that’s called [amongst other things] the Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum when temperatures are said to have been warmer by about 8 °C for [roughly] 200,000 years about 55.5 million years ago.
Overall, it’s very clear the relationship between δ18O (PDB) ‰ values and temperature influences our perspective on the past.
The inorganic quadratic interpretation reveals Ice Ages and Interglacials.
The linear Greenland interpretation reveals a “burning” zone in the Southern Hemisphere.
Personally, I favour the linear approach.
But [as always] readers should review the evidence and draw their own conclusions.
The wee beasties of the seas are fascinating…
Mysterious Web Masters – Foraminifera – ING PAN – YouTube
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjectiveis a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
They belong either to the kingdom Protista, according to Robert Whittaker’s Five kingdom classification, or clade Hacrobia, according to the newer biological classification system.
Within the Hacrobia, the coccolithophorids are in the phylum or division Haptophyta, class Prymnesiophyceae (or Coccolithophyceae).
Coccolithophorids are distinguished by special calcium carbonate plates (or scales) of uncertain function called coccoliths, which are also important microfossils.
However, there are Prymnesiophyceae species lacking coccoliths (e.g. in genus Prymnesium), so not every member of Prymnesiophyceae is coccolithophorid.
Coccolithophores are almost exclusively marine and are found in large numbers throughout the sunlight zone of the ocean.
Foraminifera (Latin for “hole bearers”; informally called “forams”) are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a “test”) of diverse forms and materials.
Tests of chitin (found in some simple genera, and Textularia in particular) are believed to be the most primitive type.
Most foraminifera are marine, the majority of which live on or within the seafloor sediment (i.e., are benthic), while a smaller variety float in the water column at various depths (i.e., are planktonic).
Foraminifera typically produce a test, or shell, which can have either one or multiple chambers, some becoming quite elaborate in structure.
These shells are commonly made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or agglutinated sediment particles.
Over 50,000 species are recognized, both living (10,000) and fossil (40,000).