Greenland: Heinsohn’s Phantom Years

Greenland - Heinsohn's Phantom Years

Mainstream historical narratives for 1st millennium Europe are usually based upon some form of splicing and dicing that, somehow, manages to fabricate a 1,000 years worth of history based upon only [about] 300 years worth of archaeological or dendrochronological evidence.

The catastrophe traces (destruction, dark earth, mud, sand etc.) are dated, in different sites, to the 230s, the 520/30s or the 930s.

Yet, where settlements continue at all, they are all directly super-imposed by 10th/11th c. ff. strata.

Therefore, the preceding strata (ending 230s or 520s) are simultaneous with the strata ending in the 930s. i.e. all sites end catastrophically in the 930s.

Therefore, some 700 years of the 1st millennium (230 to 930s) have neither strata nor tree samples for C14 or dendro-chronological dating.

Archaeological Strata Versus Baillie’s Tree-Rings: Proposal for an Experiment
Gunnar Heinsohn (8 September 2014)
http://www.q-mag.org/_media/gunnar-strata-vsbaillie08-09-2014.pdf
http://www.q-mag.org/the-1st-millennium-a-d-chronology-controversy.html

Such tricksters would have had even less of a chance in Iceland.

That Nordic island was not colonized by Europeans before the 9th c., and, yet, it has Roman coins covered by dark earth: “The coin of Probus [conventionally 276-282; GH]) was discovered in 1905 together with a glass bead […] You can see stones that seem to be laid in rows, and even floor tiles, and the farmer has told me that pieces of charcoal has been found in the area; and between the rows of stones there was a thin layer of black charcoal residue.‘

In 1933 the coin of Aurelian [conventionally 270-275; GH]) was found within the same area with various other finds. […] The circumstances surrounding the discovery of the Diocletian [conventionally 284-305; GH] antoninianus (D) [at Hvaldalur, Iceland; GH] has already been presented.

Islam’s Chronology: Were Arabs Really Ignorant of Coinage and Writing for 700 Years?
Gunnar Heinsohn (21 November 2013)
http://q-mag.org/_media/gunnar-slown-christianization-01022014.pdf
http://q-mag.org/gunnar-heinsohns-latest.html

However, the mainstream history of Greenland is different because it includes 985 phantom years.

In Greenland the mainstream narrative excludes any European settlement for the first 985 years of the first millennium.

Greenland Timeline

The Norse in Greenland – Dr. Kathryn Denning – 2007
http://www.yorku.ca/kdenning/+++2150%202007-8/2150%20special%20case%20Norse%20in%20Greenland.htm

Eigil Knuth - Calibrated Radiocarbon Dates

The Northernmost Ruins of the Globe
Bjarne Grønnow and Jens Fog Jensen
http://www.oapen.org/download?type=document&docid=342372

Norse settlement
From 986 AD, Greenland’s west coast was settled by Icelanders and Norwegians, through a contingent of 14 boats led by Erik the Red.

These settlers formed three settlements – known as the Eastern Settlement, the Western Settlement and Ivittuut the “Middle Settlement” – on fjords near the southwestern-most tip of the island.

They shared the island with the late Dorset culture inhabitants who occupied the northern and western parts, and later with the Thule culture arriving from the north.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenland#Norse_settlement

The familiar mainstream narrative details the establishment of the Eastern Settlement in 985 AD until it “was finally abandoned in the fifteenth century”.

The Eastern Settlement was the first and largest of the three areas of Norse Greenland, settled c. AD 985 by Norsemen from Iceland.

At its peak, it contained approximately 4,000 inhabitants.

The last written record from the Eastern Settlement is of a wedding solemnized in 1408, placing it about 50–100 years later than the end of the more northern Western Settlement.

Despite its name, the Eastern Settlement was more south than east of its companion and, like the Western Settlement, was located on the southwestern tip of Greenland at the head of long fjords: Tunulliarfik Fjord or Eiriksfjord, Igaliku or Einarsfjord, Sermilik Fjord, to name a few.

Approximately 500 groups of ruins of Norse farms are found in the area, including 16 church ruins, including Brattahlíð, Dyrnæs, Garðar, and Hvalsey.

Eastern settlement

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Settlement

The extensive re-modelling of the landscape around Garðar to utilise both midden and water supply would have required the annual articulation of considerable labour.

From the dating evidence, it seems that the system was maintained until the estate was finally abandoned in the fifteenth century – the cessation of manuring (cal AD 1290-1400) is a very abrupt horizon.

The power of successive bishops and their bailiffs over generations of ‘independent people’ (sensu Laxness 1946) is evident, and would support the hypothesis that final desertion reflects a group decision implemented by the See.

The abandonment of Norse Greenland essentially fossilised a medieval managed landscape with few parallels in Northern Europe.

Norse ruins at Garðar

Norse ruins at Garðar/Igaliku.
The cathedral is in the foreground and a slab marks a bishop’s grave.
The lintelled building in the background is the so-called ‘Tithe Barn’.

Antiquity Volume 082 Issue 315 March 2008
Land management at the bishop’s seat, Garðar, medieval Greenland
Paul Buckland, Kevin Edwards, Eva Panagiotakopulu & Edward Schofield
http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/buckland315/

The stratigraphy of the Eastern Settlement clearly displays “organic deposits, rich in artefactual material” overlying “a gently undulating surface of sands and silts”.

In 2005, farmers at Igaliku cut a series of drainage ditches in the pasture beside the main farm complex.

These exposed a sequence of organic deposits, rich in artefactual material and other debris overlying a gently undulating surface of sands and silts and sealed by a fibrous peat.

Ditch section at Garðar

Ditch section at Garðar/Igaliku showing poorly sorted grey-brown sands and silts with scattered stones (i) overlain by a dark brown humified and clay-rich peat containing abundant cultural material (a plaggen soil) (ii), and sealed by brown fibrous peat lacking in artefactual debris (iii). Calibration of AMS radiocarbon dates on Montia fontana seeds using Calib Rev 5.0 produces 2σ ranges of cal AD 1040-1250 (lower sample) and cal AD 1290-1400 (upper sample).

Antiquity Volume 082 Issue 315 March 2008
Land management at the bishop’s seat, Garðar, medieval Greenland
Paul Buckland, Kevin Edwards, Eva Panagiotakopulu & Edward Schofield
http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/buckland315/

When it comes to the Middle Settlement the mainstream struggles to maintain the historical narrative because it “is the smallest and least well known of the three, and no written records of its residents survive”.

The area was settled by about twenty farms of vikings, a district called the “Middle Settlement” by modern archaeologists from its placement between the larger Western and Eastern settlements.

It is the smallest and least well known of the three, and no written records of its residents survive, for which reasons it is believed to have been established last (and abandoned first) of the three. [citation needed]

Middle settlement

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivittuut

Finally, when it comes to the Western Settlement the mainstream narrative clairvoyantly asserts it was settled “around AD 985” based upon no evidence because “there is very little mention and no direct description of it in any of the medieval sources”

The Western Settlement was a group of farms and communities established by Norsemen from Iceland around AD 985 in medieval Greenland.

Despite its name, the Western Settlement was more north than west of its companion Eastern Settlement and was located at the head of the long Nuup Kangerlua fjord (inland from Nuuk, the present Greenlandic capital).

At its peak, the Western Settlement probably had about 1,000 inhabitants, about a fourth the size of the Eastern Settlement, owing to its shorter growing season.

The largest of the Western Settlement farms was Sandnæs.

Ruins of almost 95 farms have been found in the area.

Much less is known about the Western Settlement than the Eastern Settlement, as there is very little mention and no direct description of it in any of the medieval sources on Greenland.

The Norse settlement was last mentioned by the traveler Ivar Bardarson, who wrote to the Bishop of Bergen to describe conditions he observed at some point in the period 1341–1360.

In his voyage to the Western Settlement, he found only vacant farms.

Western settlement

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Settlement

However, the mainstream eventually stumbled upon the aptly named Farm Beneath the Sand [aka GUS – Gården Under Sandet] in the Western Settlement under “1.5m-thick layers of sand and gravel”.

The GUS site approximately 80km east of Nuuk, Greenland

The site investigated is known as, ‘The Farm Beneath the Sand’ (GUS) and is located in south-west Greenland on a plain surrounded by low mountains c . 80km east of Nuuk.

The building remains were found in 1990 covered by c . 1.5m-thick layers of sand and gravel (Andreasen & Arneborg 1992a & b; Schweger 1998: 16-17).

Today this area appears as a sandy desert intersected by meandering watercourses draining the icecap.

At the time of Norse settlement the scenery must have been quite different, offering grass for fodder production as well as easy access to clean water.

‘The Farm Beneath the Sand’ – an archaeological case study on ancient ‘dirt’ DNA
Martin B. Hebsgaard, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jette Arneborg, Patricia Heyn, Morten E. Allentoft, Michael Bunce, Kasper Munch, Charles Schweger & Eske Willerslev
Antiquity, 83, 2009, pp 430 – 444
http://www.archeurope.com/_texts/00045.pdf

Excavations at the GUS (Gården Under Sandet) Site

In 1990 two caribou hunters discovered timbers sticking out of a river bank about 80 km east of Nuuk.

This site has now achieved fame as the Gården Under Sandet (farm beneath the sand), or GUS for short.

The sand had been deposited by streams which were fed by meltwater from a nearby glacier and covered the entire site to an average depth of 1.5 m.

The Farm Beneath the Sand – Archaeology in Europe
http://www.archeurope.com/index.php?page=the-farm-beneath-the-sand

The stratigraphy for the Farm Beneath the Sand clearly indicates that this Western Settlement is buried beneath the sand layer [whilst in the Eastern Settlement the human structures are all built above the sand layer].

GUS Site

Building remains were located in the dotted area, and the core was taken from the area of the smaller circle.
Within the core, stratum 2 represents the landnam surface and stratum 3 is mostly of anthropogenic origin.
The strata above strata 3 represent the periodic flooding and sedimentation that took place after the depopulation of the GUS farm (Schweger 1998).
Survey by Arneborg, Kapel and Nyegaard 1993.
The generalised stratigraphic relationships in the large circle were published by Schweger in Arneborg & Gulløv (ed.) 1998: 14.

‘The Farm Beneath the Sand’ – an archaeological case study on ancient ‘dirt’ DNA
Martin B. Hebsgaard, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jette Arneborg, Patricia Heyn, Morten E. Allentoft, Michael Bunce, Kasper Munch, Charles Schweger & Eske Willerslev
Antiquity, 83, 2009, pp 430 – 444
http://www.archeurope.com/_texts/00045.pdf

In 1995 a 0.35-0.40m-long soil core was extracted for subsequent analysis.

Sample acquisition
Charles Schweger, University of Alberta, collected the sample in 1995.

The core Sch 6-26-95-2 (Schweger’s 6 June 1995 core) was located 51.1m upstream from the datum point established at the archaeological site proper.

A small trench behind the exposed face of the steep slope was excavated down close to the black cultural layers to let the permafrost melt and then a pipe was driven down into the sediment 50-200mm behind the exposed face in order to recover uncontaminated material.

The pipes were then excavated and removed, the open ends were capped, the pipes labelled and then stored in a cool place.

‘The Farm Beneath the Sand’ – an archaeological case study on ancient ‘dirt’ DNA
Martin B. Hebsgaard, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jette Arneborg, Patricia Heyn, Morten E. Allentoft, Michael Bunce, Kasper Munch, Charles Schweger & Eske Willerslev
Antiquity, 83, 2009, pp 430 – 444
http://www.archeurope.com/_texts/00045.pdf

In 2004 this soil sample was sent to Copenhagen for analysis although [curiously] the recipients weren’t certain [“may correspond” and “most probably”] which strata they were going to analyse from the Farm Beneath the Sand.

The pipe remained sealed and was sent to the ancient DNA laboratory in Copenhagen on dry ice on 10 February 2004 where it was immediately frozen at −40°C.

In Copenhagen the 0.35-0.40m-long core was divided into two.

GUS stratigraphy

The AMS-dates from 25mm and 60mm below the surface of our core confirmed that the bedded sand was deposited after the Norse occupants abandoned GUS in the late fourteenth
century, and the layers may correspond with Schweger’s units 4 or 5.

The other samples at 100, 140, 185, 225 and 260mm all represent the period of occupation in agreement with the archaeological interpretation.

The layers are identical to Schweger’s unit 3, but Schweger subdivided it into three subunits from bottom to top:

subunit 3A consists of humidified allochthonous peat formed from organic rich cultural and agricultural debris. This unit (3A) was only found in the close vicinity of the farm buildings and may not be present in the core.

Subunit 3B, consists of peat with both allochthonous and autochthonous (fibrous roots and stems) components and

unit 3C, being a thin, c . 20-40mm-thick autochthonous peat layer with fibrous roots, well-preserved bryophytes and stems – with no cultural debris (Schweger 1998: 16 and Table 1).

Unit 2 is considered the landnam layer, i.e. the surface the Norse occupants first settled on.

Most probably our samples at 100, 140, 185, 225 and 260mm are identical to Schweger’s subunit 3B and represent the period from the middle of the eleventh century to the abandonment of the farm in the late fourteenth century.

‘The Farm Beneath the Sand’ – an archaeological case study on ancient ‘dirt’ DNA
Martin B. Hebsgaard, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jette Arneborg, Patricia Heyn, Morten E. Allentoft, Michael Bunce, Kasper Munch, Charles Schweger & Eske Willerslev
Antiquity, 83, 2009, pp 430 – 444
http://www.archeurope.com/_texts/00045.pdf

Therefore, it is uncertain what the “0.35-0.40m-long core” precisely contained and it is equally strange that the last 85 mm or 140 mm of the core was completely ignored.

The importance of this becomes apparent when it is realised that the deepest sample [from 260 mm] has an uncalibrated radiocarbon age of 903 ± 36 years BP [1047 ± 36 AD].

GUS Calibrated Dates

This is close to the mainstream settlement date of 985 AD [for the Eastern Settlement] and the observer is left wondering what might have been revealed if the last 85 mm [or even 140 mm] of the core might have revealed.

Furthermore, if the Farm Beneath the Sand was first established in 985 AD then it is extremely strange that the inhabitants didn’t decide to relocate the farm because the calibrated radiocarbon evidence suggests the farm was subjected to repeated flooding and burial under sand from 1040 AD [and most probably earlier].

GUS Samples

‘The Farm Beneath the Sand’ – an archaeological case study on ancient ‘dirt’ DNA
Martin B. Hebsgaard, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Jette Arneborg, Patricia Heyn, Morten E. Allentoft, Michael Bunce, Kasper Munch, Charles Schweger & Eske Willerslev
Antiquity, 83, 2009, pp 430 – 444
http://www.archeurope.com/_texts/00045.pdf

The contrived nature of the mainstream narrative for the Western Settlement in Greenland is further highlighted by the radiocarbon dating of animal remains from the Farm Beneath the Sand which suggests horses, cattle, goats and sheep were inhabiting the farm buildings for hundreds of years after the buildings had been buried under sand and gravel in 1040 AD.

GUS Animals

Norse Greenland Dietary Economy ca. AD 980–ca. AD 1450:
Jette Arneborg, Niels Lynnerup, Jan Heinemeier, Jeppe Møhl, Niels Rud, and Árný E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir – Journal of the North Atlantic – 2012 – Special Volume 3:1–39
http://nyheder.ku.dk/alle_nyheder/2012/2012.11/nordboerne_i_groenland_maeskede_sig_i_saeler/Norse_Greenland_Dietary_Economy_ca._AD_980_ca._AD_1450.pdf

The bizarre nature of the mainstream narrative of the Western Settlement is even apparent to mainstream observers who wonder about “animals using the shelter of the abandoned buildings after its inhabitants had long gone”.

Across the river at GUS, there is no clear evidence of any terminal decay, although there is some support for Schweger’s (1998) suggestion, based on geomorphological mapping that the farm’s grazing and hayfield were being damaged by the river in its later phases.

It is curious that the complete goat in Room 22, an animal which apparently crawled into the room and died, has neither a carrion fauna nor evidence of other activities at the farm.

The animal belongs to Phase VI of the farm, dated to 1250-60 by the excavators (Arneborg, pers. comm.), and the room is reused in a subsequent phase, although not the terminal one.

Is there a suggestion here that the site was abandoned for time before being rebuilt?

The insect faunas from over the burnt long house of phase I-II would also suggest a significant gap before the site was re-occupied.

The terminal phase of GUS is instructive.

In pools, which developed in the collapsed depressions of the turf roof, there is no trace of the fauna, which was able to thrive in the artificially warm rooms of the farm, in its stored fodder and flooring materials, but there are still sheep, curiously indicated by large numbers of their lice but no keds.

The picture is of the animals using the shelter of the abandoned buildings after its inhabitants had long gone

Archaeology and the Palaeoecology of the Norse Atlantic Islands : a Review
Chapter 14 – Paul C Buckland, Eva Panagiotakopulu
http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/research/globalchange/group5b/QuatEnt/BucklandPanagiotakopulu2004.pdf

GUS Excavation

Greenland – Archeology
http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/voyage/subset/greenland/archeo.html

Overall, the stratigraphy indicates the landnam layer [“the surface the Norse occupants first settled on”] at the Farm Beneath the Sand in the Western Settlement predates the worldwide catastrophe that occurred in the 230s AD [aka 930s AD].

GUS Projection

Therefore, the establishment of the Eastern Settlement represent a resettlement of Greenland by the Norse after the worldwide catastrophe of the 230s AD [aka 930s AD].

Old Greenland

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Gallery | This entry was posted in Catastrophism, Dendrochronology, Greenland, Gunnar Heinsohn, History, Radiocarbon Dating. Bookmark the permalink.

8 Responses to Greenland: Heinsohn’s Phantom Years

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  7. I’m tempted to correlate the Chernozems with the Dark Earth layers and see what that produces. The reason I mention this is that some years back I was doing field exploration by collecting heavy mineral samples on Meka Station, near Cue, WA. I stumbled across a remnant chernozem (Black soil) termite mound. A bit of a jaw dropping observation. The empiricist in me thinks a heresy or two. The scientist in me is lost for an explanation using received theory.

    Just saying. 😉

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