Being a scientist in the Age of Settled Science is a precarious occupation simply because submitting an honest scientific paper for peer-review can get you de-funded and/or branded a heretic by the academic gatekeepers that police the publication process.
Therefore, scientists are frequently obliged to compromise and prioritise for publication.
This leads to the bizarre situation where published observations may show that 1 + 1 = 2 while the associated conclusions conform to the Settled Science where 1 + 1 = 5.
In other words: Follow The Data.
On the other hand, being a Settled Scientist is a lot safer because they simply ensure the information submitted for publication supports the Settled Science that 1 + 1 = 5.
The level of academic misdirection is particularly extreme in the [largely oxymoronic] Earth Sciences where Settled Scientists prefer to inhabit virtual reality safe spaces [aka computer models] instead of venturing out into the real world where they might get their hands dirty.
However, everything is not lost in the Earth Sciences because there are still some scientists left who are willing to push the envelope by venturing out into the real world.
Dallas Abbott is a scientist who has advanced the boundaries of knowledge by venturing out into the real world [H/T Saucy Chaucer].
William Ryan, a marine geologist at the Lamont Observatory, compared Dr. Abbott’s work to that of other pioneering scientists who had to change the way their colleagues thought about a subject.
“Many of us think Dallas is really onto something,” Dr. Ryan said.
“She is building a story just like Walter Alvarez did.”
Dr. Alvarez, a professor of earth and planetary sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, spent a decade convincing skeptics that a giant asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.
Unsurprisingly, her work on impact sites and mega tsunamis has made waves.
In southern Madagascar we have documented evidence for tsunami wave run-up reaching 205 m above sea-level and penetrating up to 45 km inland along the strike of the chevron axis.
Subtly the orientation of the dunes is not aligned to the prevailing wind direction, but to the path of refracted mega-tsunami originating from Burckle impact crater.
The results of our study show that substantive oceanic comet impacts not only have occurred more recently than modeled by astrophysicists, but also that they have profoundly affected Earth’s natural systems, climate, and human societies.
Mega Tsunami of the World Oceans: Chevron Dune Formation, Micro-Ejecta, and Rapid Climate Change as the Evidence of Recent Oceanic Bolide Impacts
Viacheslav Gusiakov, Dallas H. Abbott, Edward A. Bryant, W. Bruce Masse, and Dee Breger
Geophysical Hazards – Tom Beer – Springer – 2009
Columbia University Academic Commons
The Fenambosy Chevron is one of four chevron-shaped land features on the southwest coast of Madagascar, near the tip of Madagascar, 180 meters (590 ft) high and 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inland.
Examples of chevron dunes from different parts of the world ocean coastline. They reach heights of more than 100 m with in-land penetration of up to 10 km and believed to be a result of impact of destructive oceanic waves with possible later modification made by wind.
Holocene Impact Working Group – Chevron Dunes
Predictably, in this Age of Settled Science, the mainstream is busy trying to get the toothpaste back into the tube using the tried and tested Four Ms:
Modeling: Mathematical modelling of a preferred Virtual Reality World
Must: Mandating theories “must” be right.
Might: Peer-Review censorship and consensus corralling.
Money: De-funding, defaming and decommissioning.
In 2009 Bourgeois and Weiss employed “reason” and argued “by modeling”.
We reason that chevron-type bed forms are common and are present far enough from the coast to preclude tsunami genesis.
Moreover, we argue that “chevrons” are not mega-tsunami deposits by modeling tsunami behavior and evaluating sediment-transport conditions under which such features formed.
We model the southern Madagascar case, with an impact source in the Indian Ocean, and show that a modeled wave approach is inconsistent with “chevron” orientation.
“Chevrons” Are Not Mega-Tsunami Deposits – A Sedimentologic Assessment
Joanne Bourgeois, Robert Weiss – Geology. 37 (5): 403–406 – 2009
However, the megatsunami origin of the Fernambosy and other chevrons has been challenged by other geologists and oceanographers.
In 2015 J. Hansen et al declared chevron beach structures “must” be formed by storms.
The Eemian-age chevron beach structures with consistent southwesterly direction throughout windward shores in the Bahamas, with wave runup deposits at elevations as much as 20–40 m above today’s sea level and reaching as far as a few kilometers inland, must have been formed by massive storms in the direction of the prevailing winds.
Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise And Superstorms: Evidence From Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, And Modern Observations That 2ºc Global Warming Is Highly Dangerous
J. Hansen; M. Sato; P. Hearty; R. Ruedy; M. Kelley; V. Masson-Delmotte; G. Russell; G. Tselioudis; J. Cao; E. Rignot; I. Velicogna; E. Kandiano; K. von Schuckmann; P. Kharecha; A. N. Legrande; M. Bauer; K.-W. Lo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 15, 20059–20179, 2015
Dallas Abbott’s adventures probably begun in earnest at the Atlantis Conference in 2005.
We have found an impact crater that is likely < 6000 years old.
Burckle crater is in the central Indian Ocean on the edge of a fracture zone at 30.87° S 61.36°E. The crater is 29±1 km wide and is the inferred source of layers with high magnetic susceptibility in 3 deep sea cores. Each layer goes to the top of the core.
Two out of 3 of the cores have basal Pleistocene ages and the basal age of the third is unknown. The high susceptibility layers contain broken plagioclase, spinel periodotite, and chrysotile asbestos.
One sample contains pure Ni with drops of oxidized Ni.
Because pure Ni melts at 1453°C, it is very likely that the drops formed during an impact. The high susceptibility layers from 2 cores are over 5 times thicker than they should be for a 29 km wide source crater.
We also find that a 29 km wide source crater cannot vaporize enough seawater to produce meters of rain, even in a restricted region between 4750 and 7250 km from the crater.
Thus, we infer that Burckle crater was produced as part of a Shoemaker-Levy type impact of a comet. The fragmented comet also produced two other large impact centers, one in the northwest Pacific and another in the central eastern Pacific.
Where the rainout from these impact centers overlaps, we see deluge events that are over a week long. The impact event also produced devastating tsunamis, winds, and associated social upheaval. We date the event to around 2807 B.C.
Paired open red circles: Each set of circles is the same set of distances from a central point.
The inner circle is 4750 km away and the outer circle is 7250 km away.
Distortion is due to use of a mercator projection.
Red square: center of a set of paired circles.
Solid red circles: locations with deluge legends.
Blue circles: locations of chevrons attributed to megatsunami events.
Small green circles: locations with tsunami legends.
(A) Two sets of paired red circles are shown, one for Burckle crater and another for an inferred strike in the equatorial Pacific.
(B) Two sets of paired circles are shown: one for Burckle crater and another for an inferred strike in the ocean just off Kamchatka.
Solid yellow circles: areas where deluge legends report a deluge lasting more than 7 days.
Note that yellow circles are either in areas where sets of paired red circles overlap or just west of these areas.
Burckle Abyssal Impact Crater: Did this Impact Produce a Global Deluge?
Dallas H. Abbott, Lloyd Burckle, Perri Gerard-Little, W. Bruce Masse and Dee Breger
The Atlantis Hypothesis: Searching for a Lost Land, Heliotopos Publications, St. P. Papmarinopoulous, Ed., pp. 179-190
This Conference aimed to serve as a forum for the presentation and constructive discussion of all the issues related to the hypothesis of the lost land of Atlantis.
The purpose of the meeting was to gather specialists of all the different disciplines involved in highlighting the scientific aspects of this fascinating subject.
Being a smart scientists Dallas Abbott began joining up the dots around the Indian Ocean.
The melting temperature of pure Fe is 1535 °C.
These temperatures do not occur in sedimentary rocks.
Because the grain shapes indicate that the native Fe was deposited immediately after it solidified, we propose that the iron melted during a nearby impact event.
The melt flew through the air and was deposited either as broken grains or bulbous drops.
Native Iron in the Chaibasa Shales: Result of a Pre 1.6 Ga Impact?
D. Abbott, R. Mazumder and D. Brege
37th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference – Vol. 37 – March 2006
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
It is part of the Deccan Plate, which broke free from the southern continent during the Cretaceous to embark on a 50-million-year journey that was violently interrupted by the northern Eurasian continent.
The northeastern part of the Deccan Plateau, where this ecoregion sits, was the first area of contact with Eurasia.
The Singhbhum area contains much more hilly and broken country.
The centre of the area consists of an upland plateau enclosed by hill ranges.
This strip, extending from the Subarnarekha River on the east to the Angarbira range to the west of Chaibasa, is a very fertile area.
The response of stromatolites to seismic shocks: Tomboliths from the Palaeoproterozoic Chaibasa Formation, E India: Discussion and liquefaction basics
G. Shanmugam – Journal of Palaeogeography – 2017
Although the verbiage of the Native Iron in the Chaibasa Shales paper [above] happily conforms to the Settled Science regarding Native Iron it’s important to Follow The Data because superficial Native Iron deposits with a nickel content above 0.37% in all probability originated in the iron-nickel core of another planetary body.
Accordingly, the mainstream geologic theologians have decreed that:
1) Iron embedded in terrestrial rocks is Telluric iron.
2) Iron meteorites must contain more than 3% nickel.
Type 1 Telluric iron is specified so it can explain away the large iron meteorites.
Type 2 Telluric iron is specified so it can explain away the embedded fragments of iron meteorites.
The geologic theologians have also found it necessary to whimsically promulgate that many minor meteoric minerals, such as cohenite, are also terrestrial minerals.
Furthermore, these mainstream explanations will struggle to explain the nickel content of Telluric iron because the estimated elemental abundance of iron and nickel in the Earth’s crust suggests an average nickel content of [somewhere] between 0.14% and 0.37%.
Therefore, any metallic iron nodules found embedded in the Earth’s crust with a nickel content above 0.37% most probably:
a) Originated in the Earth’s iron-nickel core
b) Originated in the iron-nickel core of another planetary body [and arrived as iron meteors which catastrophically fragmented in the Earth’s atmosphere].
Overall, Dallas Abbott managed to effectively join up many of the impact dots that are embedded around the Indian Ocean.
Chevrons are enigmatic yet understudied sedimentary structures.
This paper presents a comprehensive description of chevrons along the world’s coastlines, and with use of Google Earth, 221 chevron sites were identified.
Although morphologically variable, chevrons all show lancet-like forms at different shoreline angles.
Their origin could only be wind or waves driven.
Although many chevrons resemble narrow parabolic coastal dunes, a young aeolian genesis can be excluded where orientation contradicts main wind direction, or where no beach or sand deposit exists.
Where storm origin can be excluded due to chevron height and extension far beyond storm wave reach pre-historic tsunamis were considered.
Chevrons – Enigmatic Sedimentary Coastal Features
Scheffers, A.; Kelletat, D.; Scheffers, S. R.; Abbott, D. H.; Bryant, E. A.
Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie – Vol 52 – Num 3 – Sept 2008 – pp. 375-402(28)
However, it appears very likely that Dallas Abbott Followed The Data and realised that something isn’t quite right with the mainstream geological timeline for the Indian Ocean.
Firstly, there is the very remarkable absence of chevron beach structures around the Bay of Bengal and all along the south coast of the Indonesian archipelago.
Secondly, there are evident mismatches between the identified deluge legend locations are the chevron beach structures.
Thirdly, simply triangulating the known Impacts Sites with the known chevron beach structures and their associated directional vectors suggests:
1) There are additional Impacts Sites
2) The relative positions of the Impacts Sites and the Beach Chevrons have changed [sometimes very significantly] since [for example] the Burckle Impact in about 2,807 BC.
The realisation that something isn’t quite right with the mainstream geological timeline is further reinforced by the curious 1st millennium history of Madagascar that spans the Indian Ocean – just like the red sand band that spans the Indian Ocean.
Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and AD 550 by Austronesian peoples arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo.
These were joined around AD 1000 by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa.
Thankfully, Dallas Abbott continued to Follow The Data and push the envelope…