Fiery Trigons: Kepler’s Supernova

Serendipity supplies a surprise solution to the daytime sightings of Venus mystery.

Planetary atmospheres fluoresce when they are exposed to ionizing radiation.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/living-in-a-light-bulb/

Electric discharge in gases occurs when electric current flows through a gaseous medium due to ionization of the gas.

Depending on several factors, the discharge may radiate visible light.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_discharge_in_gases

Gas-filled tubes exploit phenomena related to electric discharge in gases, and operate by ionizing the gas with an applied voltage sufficient to cause electrical conduction by the underlying phenomena of the Townsend discharge.

A gas-discharge lamp is an electric light using a gas-filled tube; these include fluorescent lamps, metal-halide lamps, sodium-vapor lamps, and neon lights.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas-filled_tube

The thick clouds of sulfuric acid surrounding Venus produce white light [primarily a combination of fluorescing hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen] when it’s exposed to ionizing radiation.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/living-in-a-light-bulb/

Wikipedia calls this fluorescence “an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid”.

Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus

Venus is very visible when the Sun is below the horizon.

Venus “overtakes” Earth every 584 days as it orbits the Sun.
As it does so, it changes from the “Evening Star”, visible after sunset, to the “Morning Star”, visible before sunrise.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus#Observation

But Venus is not so noticeable in broad daylight because it’s just a tiny pinprick of fluorescent light.

Yes, Venus is indeed visible to the unaided eye during broad daylight, assuming that the air is reasonably free of haze.

In fact, it’s startlingly easy to see — but equally hard to find.

It’s just a tiny pinprick of light amid the vast sea of blue sky.

Even after you succeed in finding Venus, it’s very easy to lose sight of it if you glance away for a moment.

See Venus in Broad Daylight! – Tony Flanders – 25 Feb 2011 – Sky & Telescope

See Venus in Broad Daylight!

If Venus received additional ionising radiation during daylight hours then it would – like any other light bulb – become far more noticeable because it would look bigger and brighter.

https://www.instructables.com/lesson/Light-Bulbs/

This is not something mere mortals can easily arrange.

The only thing to do is wait patiently for a nearby Supernova to provide Venus with a sudden power surge of ionising radiation.

A supernova is an event that occurs upon the death of certain types of stars.

Supernovae may expel much, if not all, of the material away from a star at velocities up to 30,000 km/s or 10% of the speed of light.

This drives an expanding and fast-moving shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium, and in turn, sweeping up an expanding shell of gas and dust, which is observed as a supernova remnant.

Because supernovae are relatively rare events within a galaxy, occurring about three times a century in the Milky Way, obtaining a good sample of supernovae to study requires regular monitoring of many galaxies.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supernova

The Supernova of 1604
In 1604 a supernova was observed in the constellation Ophiuchus.

SN 1604, also known as Kepler’s Supernova, Kepler’s Nova or Kepler’s Star, was a supernova of Type Ia that occurred in the Milky Way, in the constellation Ophiuchus.

Appearing in 1604, it is the most recent supernova in our own galaxy to have been unquestionably observed by the naked eye, occurring no farther than 6 kiloparsecs or about 20,000 light-years from Earth.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler%27s_Supernova

The supernova of 1604 was first observed on 9 October 1604, near θ Ophiuchi.

Johannes Kepler saw it first on 16 October and studied it so extensively that the supernova was subsequently called Kepler’s Supernova. He published his findings in a book titled De stella nova in pede Serpentarii (On the New Star in Ophiuchus’ Foot). Galileo used its brief appearance to counter the Aristotelian dogma that the heavens are changeless.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophiuchus

https://archive.org/details/den-kbd-pil-220024004022-001/page/n97

The 1604 supernova power surge caused Venus to light-up during the day.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/02/16/korean-horizons/

The Supernova of 1667 [ ± 8 years ]
Cassiopeia A is a supernova remnant with no known sightings of the supernova.

Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is a supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Cassiopeia and the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky at frequencies above 1 GHz.

The supernova occurred approximately 11,000 light-years (3.4 kpc) away within the Milky Way.

It is estimated that light from the stellar explosion first reached Earth approximately 300 years ago, but there are no historical records of any sightings of the supernova that created the remnant.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassiopeia_A

It has been retro-calculated that the supernova would have been visible in 1667 ± 8 years.

Secondly an analysis of the rate of expansion of the nebulosity shows that the supernova would have been seen from Earth in about AD 1667 ± 8, assuming, of course, that it was visible at all.

Did Flamsteed see the Cassiopeia A supernova?
David W Hughes – Nature – Volume 285 – Pages 132–133 – 1980

https://www.nature.com/articles/285132a0

The observational records suggest the Cassiopeia A supernova power surge caused Venus to light-up in 1660.

The Supernova of 1572
B Cassiopeiae is a supernova remnant that has supernova sighting records.

SN 1572 (Tycho’s Supernova, Tycho’s Nova), or B Cassiopeiae (B Cas), was a supernova of Type Ia in the constellation Cassiopeia, one of eight supernovae visible to the naked eye in historical records. It appeared in early November 1572 and was independently discovered by many individuals.

The more reliable contemporary reports state that the new star itself burst forth soon after November 2, and by November 11 it was already brighter than Jupiter. Around November 16, 1572, it reached its peak brightness at about magnitude −4.0, with some descriptions giving it as equal to Venus when that planet was at its brightest. The supernova remained visible to the naked eye into early 1574, gradually fading until it disappeared from view.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1572

https://archive.org/details/operumprimitiasd00brahuoft/page/n45

However, there are no records of Venus being lit-up during the day in 1572/3.

The data indicates the 1572 supernova power surge was particularly weak.

The search for a supernova remnant was negative until 1952, when Hanbury Brown and Cyril Hazard reported a radio detection at 158.5 MHz, obtained at the Jodrell Bank Observatory.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1572

In 1572, Tycho Brahe’s supernova flared brightly in Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia A is a supernova remnant and the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky at frequencies above 1 GHz.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassiopeia_%28constellation%29

This might explain why the mainstream had such problems classifying the supernova.

The X-ray spectrum of the remnant showed that it was almost certainly of type Ia, but its exact classification continued to be debated until the detection of a light echo in 2008 gave final confirmation that it is a normal type Ia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1572

And it might mean their “accurate measure” of distance is not so accurate after all.

The classification as a type Ia supernova of normal luminosity allows an accurate measure of the distance to SN 1572. …
The distance to the supernova remnant has been estimated to between 2 and 5 kpc (approx. 6,500 and 16,300 light-years), with recent studies suggesting a narrower range of 2.5 and 3 kpc (approx. 8,000 and 9,800 light-years).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SN_1572

Points To Ponder
The very limited data suggests supernova produce fast power surges and slow power surges that cause twin peaks in the daytime appearances of Venus.

The twin peaks might reflect a “rapidly moving shell” and an inner “expanding bubble”.

In 1572, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe observed and studied the explosion of a star that became known as Tycho’s supernova. More than four centuries later, Chandra’s image of the supernova remnant shows an expanding bubble of multimillion degree debris (green and red) inside a more rapidly moving shell of extremely high energy electrons (filamentary blue).

Tycho’s Remnant Provides Shocking Evidence for Cosmic Rays
NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2005/tycho/

Or the twin peaks might simply reflect “two X-ray emitting shock waves”.

The supersonic expansion (about six million miles per hour) of the stellar debris has created two X-ray emitting shock waves – one moving outward into the interstellar gas, and another moving back into the debris. These shock waves produce sudden, large changes in pressure and temperature, like an extreme version of sonic booms produced by the supersonic motion of airplanes.

Tycho’s Remnant Provides Shocking Evidence for Cosmic Rays
NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2005/tycho/

Either way:

The time-delay between the twin peaks would reflect the distance of the supernova.

According to the standard theory, the outward-moving shock wave should be about 2 light years ahead of the stellar debris. What Chandra found instead is that the stellar debris has kept pace with the outer shock and is only about half a light year behind.

Tycho’s Remnant Provides Shocking Evidence for Cosmic Rays
NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory

http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2005/tycho/

Whether this distance agrees with the official light year calculations [and the muddled mainstream wave–particle duality mindset] is another matter entirely.

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave%E2%80%93particle_duality

Footnote One
Spica is a binary star that’s occasionally occulted by Venus.

Spica is the brightest object in the constellation of Virgo and one of the 20 brightest stars in the night sky. Analysis of its parallax shows that it is located 250 ± 10 light years from the Sun.

It is a spectroscopic binary star and rotating ellipsoidal variable; a system whose two stars are so close together they are egg-shaped rather than spherical, and can only be separated by their spectra.

The primary is a blue giant and a variable star of the Beta Cephei type.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spica

An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occultation

The last occultation of Spica by Venus occurred in 1783 and this event coincidently marked the end of regular daytime sightings of Venus.

Spica is 2.06 degrees from the ecliptic and can be occulted by the Moon and sometimes by planets. The last planetary occultation of Spica occurred when Venus passed in front of the star (as seen from Earth) on November 10, 1783.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spica

Footnote Two
The Maunder Minimum appears to mark the transition from reports of Dragons in the sky to the less flamboyant Northern Lights which were “firft” reported during 1718.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/02/04/hecker-horizon-enter-the-dragon/

https://archive.org/details/voxstellarumorlo00unse_10/page/n33

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2018/12/03/schrodingers-sunspots/

https://books.google.es/books?id=tUYsAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA22-PA3&lpg=RA22-PA3&dq=fiery+meteor+19+march+1719&source=bl&ots=ntcQFfsW3l&sig=ACfU3U1wftYPoQyK5u54GogegrZ8oxuMXA&hl=es&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwirwJmbnufhAhXhyYUKHYUTDRsQ6AEwAXoECAkQAQ

It’s open to debate whether the reports of Dragons and Northern Lights reflect Supernova power surges and/or Solar activity [which was in it’s 23rd “cycle” during 1750].

https://archive.org/details/voxstellarumorlo00unse_10/page/n5

Update 26 May 2019
The daytime appearances of Venus suggest the exceptional electro-magnetic events of 1716, 1726 and 1737 were really remarkably tame within the context of the preceding fiery centuries that gave rise to the Renaissance.

See: https://malagabay.wordpress.com/2019/05/27/fire-and-brimstone/

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5 Responses to Fiery Trigons: Kepler’s Supernova

  1. Why Venus/Phoenix and not Jupiter etc?

  2. malagabay says:

    The answer to that question may [or may not] be found in the Korean annals… I have only encountered the Venus data.

  3. malagabay says:

    https://archive.org/details/collectionengli09unkngoog/page/n332

    The four major (“Galilean”) satellites of Jupiter form a miniature Solar System, whose “years” are measured in days.

    Astronomers have monitored the motions of these worlds from Galileo’s time to the present to improve their orbital models and to study the effects of tides on the movements of Io and Europa. (In order outward from Jupiter, the Galileans are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.)

    The most accurate ways to measure the positions of these moons are by photographic astrometry with large telescopes and by CCD photometry of the eclipses of these bodies by the shadow of Jupiter.

    The A.L.P.O. program, however, preserves continuity with almost four centuries of visual timings of these eclipses, investigating the sources of error in making visual timings.

    Timing the Eclipses of Jupiter’s Galilean Satellites
    John E Westfall, ALPO Assistant Jupiter Coordinator, Galilean Satellites

    http://www.alpo-astronomy.org/jupiter/GaliInstr.pdf

  4. remnant13 says:

    Concerning cycles and novae, have you run across Dr. Ben of “SuspiciousObservers” and the theory of recurring micronova of our sun (next due in ~27 yrs.) Fascinating:

    Especially interesting as Earth’s magnetic pole shift accelerates.
    We live in interesting times.
    Peace!

    = = = =

    Malagabay: The Adam and Eve Story is available at Archive.org

    https://archive.org/details/ChanThomasTheAdamAndEveStory/page/n6

  5. Pingback: Fire and Brimstone | MalagaBay

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