Could Kepler’s chart contain the key to climate cycles?
The Unforeseen Fall of Astrology
The 17th century marked the fall from grace of astrology as an “accepted discipline”.
The earliest existing record of a telescope was a 1608 patent submitted to the government in the Netherlands by Middelburg spectacle maker Hans Lippershey for a refracting telescope. The actual inventor is unknown but word of it spread through Europe. Galileo heard about it and, in 1609, built his own version, and made his telescopic observations of celestial objects.
By the end of 17th century astrology in England had declined from its once respected position as an accepted discipline among the intellectual elite and was largely forgotten by the educated classes.
The reasons for the decline are a complex blend of political, religious, economic, and scientific factors as well as a fundamental change in worldview brought about by the Scientific Revolution.
There is much disagreement among historians as to the extent and cause of this decline.
Although astrology had always had its critics, it had managed to survive and even thrive for centuries despite some very powerful intellectual and theological arguments against it.
Since there was no large scale assault by the scientific community that finally caused this decline, it has been difficult to explain.
Contested Iconography: Was Isaac Newton an Astrologer, a Rational Mechanistic Scientist, or Neither? – James Frazier
The 20th century marked the further debasement and trivialisation of astrology in western culture.
Max Heindel (born Carl Louis von Grasshoff, July 23, 1865 – January 6, 1919) was a Danish-American Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic.
He also became a vegetarian, and began the study of astrology, which he felt gave him the key to unlocking the mysteries of man’s inner nature.
He said that he spent much of the time during this illness out of his body, consciously working and seeking for the truth as he might find it on the invisible planes.
The then editor of the Sunday Express, John Gordon, first asked Cheiro, the leading British astrologer of his time to write a horoscope for the newly-born Princess Margaret, predicting what might happen in her future. As Cheiro was not available, Naylor, who was working as an assistant to Cheiro, undertook the task. This led to a Sunday Express article, “What The Stars Foretell For The New Princess”. The article appeared on 24 August 1930, three days after her birth.
By 1937, Naylor had developed a system using the 12 sun signs (star signs) which he called “Your Stars”.
This simplified system of astrology allowed twelve forecasts to be made based purely on reader’s birth dates. The forecasts could be changed endlessly, thus making an ideal regular newspaper feature.
For modern readers it probably seems strange that astronomers were once very interested in the Great Conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn.
A great conjunction is a conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn.
Great conjunctions have attracted considerable attention as celestial omens.
During the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, great conjunctions were a topic broached by most astronomers of the period up to the times of Tycho Brahe and Kepler, by scholastic thinkers as Roger Bacon or Pierre d’Ailly, and they are mentioned in popular and literary writing by authors such as Dante or Shakespeare.
This interest is traced back in Europe to the translations from Arabian sources, most notably Albumasar’s book on conjunction.
Abu Maʿshar, Latinized as Albumasar (787-886), was an early Persian Muslim astrologer, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad. While he was not a major innovator, his practical manuals for training astrologers profoundly influenced Muslim intellectual history and, through translations, that of western Europe and Byzantium.
In the recycled Magism of Masha’allah, major conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn signal the dawn of new world ages, and heralded the birth of Christ and the rise of Christianity, as well as the birth of Mohammed and the rise of Islam. The same combination of Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions and millenniums confirmed the Muslim caliphs on their throne and held the hope for the future in the coming of the Mahdi, the promised deliverer at the end of the world.
The Star of the Magi:
The Mystery That Heralded the Coming of Christ
Courtney Roberts – 2007
Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/1564149625/
Mā Shā’ Allāh ibn Athari (c.740–815 CE) was an eighth-century Persian Jewish astrologer, astronomer, and mathematician… Latin translators called him many variants such as Messahala, Messahalla, Messala, Macellama, Macelarma, Messahalah, etc.
Mashallah’s treatise De mercibus (On Prices) is the oldest known scientific work extant in Arabic and the only work of his extant in its original Arabic. Multiple translations into medieval Latin, Byzantine Greek and Hebrew were made.
On Conjunctions, Religions, and People was an astrological world history based on conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn. A few fragments are extant as quotations by the Christian astrologer Ibn Hibinta.
Great Conjunctions usually occur every 18 to 20 years.
Great conjunctions take place regularly, every 18–20 years, as a result of the combined ~12-year orbital period of Jupiter around the Sun, and Saturn’s ~30-year orbital period.
However, the apparent retrograde motion of Saturn and Jupiter occasionally cause three Great Conjunctions to occur over a period of a few months.
A greatest conjunction is a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn at or near their opposition to the Sun.
In this scenario, Jupiter and Saturn will occupy the same position in right ascension on three separate occasions over a period of a few months.
Such tripled occurrences are actually known as triple conjunctions.
The ~ 60 Year Trigon
The Trigon pattern is formed over ~ 60 years by four Great Conjunctions.
As successive great conjunctions occur nearly 120° apart, their appearances form a triangular pattern. In a series every fourth conjunction returns after some 60 years in the vicinity of the first. These returns are observed to be shifted by some 7–8°, so no more than four of them occur in the same zodiacal sign.
It’s claimed several natural phenomena display a “~ 60-year oscillation”.
It is a well-known feature of climate change that since 1850 multiple climate datasets present a ~ 60-year oscillation. I recently wrote about it in the 7th chapter of my Nature Unbound series. This oscillation is present in the
Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO),
Arctic Oscillation (AO),
North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO),
Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO),
Length of Day (LOD), and
Global (GST) and Northern Hemisphere (NHT) temperatures,
with different lags …
The 60-year Oscillation Revisited – Andy May
Watts Up With That? – April 26, 2018
Some have suggested this ~ 60-year oscillation has a astronomical origin.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) obtained using instrumental and documentary proxy predictors from Eurasia is found to be characterized by a quasi 60-year dominant oscillation since 1650.
This pattern emerges clearly once the NAO record is time integrated to stress its comparison with the temperature record. The integrated NAO (INAO) is found to well correlate with the length of the day (since 1650) and the global surface sea temperature record HadSST2 and HadSST3 (since 1850).
These findings suggest that INAO can be used as a good proxy for global climate change, and that a 60-year cycle exists in the global climate since at least 1700.
Finally, the INAO ~60-year oscillation well correlates with the ~60- year oscillations found in the historical European aurora record since 1700, which suggests that this 60-year dominant climatic cycle has a solar-astronomical origin.
Evidences for a quasi 60-year North Atlantic Oscillation since 1700
Adriano Mazzarella, Nicola Scafetta
Theoretical Applied Climatology 107, 599-609 (2012)
Some have even suggested this ~ 60-year oscillation is associated with Saturn.
1) Twice the orbital period of Saturn: 2 x 29.4571 = 58.9142 years
2) The double Synodic Precession period of the Saturn-Earth System as they travel twice around the Sun in [2 x 29.46 =] 58.92 years.
3) Three times the conjunction period of Saturn-Jupiter: 19.66 x 3 = 58.98 years.
The Fiery Trigon
The clockwise sequence of Great Conjunctions causes the triangular Trigon pattern to precess anti-clockwise through the signs of the zodiac.
Girolamo Cardano (1501–1576) defined the Fiery Trigon as ‘the first of the trigons, formed by Aries, Leo and Sagittarius, the three masculine signs that are also the houses of the Sun, Mars and Jupiter.
The Fiery Trigon is ruled by the Sun and Jupiter, since Mars was excluded by another relation. The Sun has supreme rule during the day, Jupiter at night’.
Kepler on the New Star: De stella nova, Chapters 7-9
Translated and annotated by Patrick J. Boner
Culture and Cosmos – Volume 14 – Kepler’s Astrology – 2010
Special significance was assigned to the Fiery Trigon formed when a Great Conjunction first falls in Aries.
However, unprincipled prognosticators never let a good Trigon go to waste.
Remember, the Inquisition didn’t indict Galileo for practicing or teaching astrology. If the Inquisition wanted to prosecute astrologers, they would have had to start with the pope.
Urban VIII, the pope who oversaw Galileo’s eventual condemnation, was openly dependent upon astrological advisors, but so were a great many occupants of the Chair of St. Peter, including those, such as Sylvester II, who were adept practitioners themselves.
The Star of the Magi: The Mystery That Heralded the Coming of Christ
Courtney Roberts – 2007
Amazon UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1564149625/
The Great Trigon of 1483/4 was supposed to herald “the arrival of the messiah”.
Around 1470 it was Isaac Abarbanel who caused a sensation with his prediction that the return of the great trigon into the sign of Pisces signifies the arrival of the messiah and the beginning of the Jewish salvation period. And the Great Conjunction of the year 1483/4 led to a heated discussion among European scholars. 27
27 This discussion was related, among other issues, to the birth chart of Martin Luther; the reformer later even faked his year of birth in order to let it correspond to the Great Conjunction.
Interreligious Transfers in the Middle Ages: The Case of Astrology
Kocku von Stuckrad – Journal of Religion in Europe 1 (2008) 34–59
The last Watery Trigon was supposed to herald “apocalyptic changes”.
Despite the inaccuracies and some disagreement about the beginning of the cycle the belief in the significance of such events generated a stream of publications which grew steadily up to the end of the 16th century.
As the great conjunction of 1583 was the last in the watery trigon it was widely supposed to herald apocalyptic changes; a papal bull against divinations was issued in 1586 and as nothing really significant had happened by 1603 with the advent of a new trigon, the public interest rapidly died.
Astrologically, the end of 1603 marked the beginning of a fiery trigon, the start of the about 800-year cycle of great conjunctions; astrologers associated the two previous such periods with
the rise of Charlemagne (c. 800 years earlier)
the birth of Christ (c. 1600 years earlier),
and thus expected events of great portent, especially regarding the emperor.
58. Although the dates varied slightly, Tycho, Kepler and Alsted correlated the following eras with climacteric conjunctions:(3975 B.C.) = Creation and Fall of Adam; (3182 B.C.) = Enoch; (2388 B.C.) = Noah's Flood; (1514 B.C.) = Moses, Exodus, giving of the Law; (794 B.C.) = Isaiah, servitude of Israelite in Media, loss of ten Tribes; (6 B.C.) = Jesus' coming; (A.D. 789) = Charlemagne; (A.D. 1583) = Stella Nova.
Comets, Popular Culture, and the Birth of Modern Cosmology
Sara J Schechner – 1997
Amazon US: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01K3HC6JW
The Fiery Trigon of 1643 was supposed to herald “changes for the better”.
In 1643 there appeared at London an English translation of a treatise on the millennium by one of the leading Protestant scholars of the time, Johann Heinrich Alsted.
Apparently to add the authority of science to Alsted’s calculations concerning the proximity of the millennium, the translator appended a passage from a work by the age’s foremost astronomer, Tycho Brahe.
In it the reader learned that important changes for the better could be expected shortly in the sublunary world as a result of the entry of the conjunctions of Saturn and Jupiter into the “fiery trigon.”
Brahe’s translator apparently felt the London reader of the time would need no enlightenment as to what the “fiery trigon” and its “revolutions” were.
Dante and the Doctrine of the Great Conjunctions
Kennerly M Woody – 1977
Dante Studies, with the Annual Report of the Dante Society No. 95
Millennialism (from millennium, Latin for “a thousand years”), or chiliasm (from the Greek equivalent), is a belief advanced by some religious denominations that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth prior to the final judgment and future eternal state of the “World to Come”.
Christian views on the future order of events diversified after the Protestant reformation (c.1517). In particular, new emphasis was placed on the passages in the Book of Revelation which seemed to say that as Christ would return to judge the living and the dead, Satan would be locked away for 1000 years, but then released on the world to instigate a final battle against God and his Saints (Rev. 20:1–6).
The Fiery Trigon of 1703
Regardless of the priestly predictions and soothsayer spin it’s very clear from Johannes Kepler’s diagram the Fiery Trigon arrived in 1703 with the first Great Conjunction in Aries.
January 14 – The magnitude 6.7 Norcia earthquake affects Central Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). With a death toll of 6,240–9,761, it is the first in a sequence of three destructive events.
January 16 – The magnitude 6.2 Montereale earthquake causes damage at Accumoli, Armatrice, Cittareale, and Montereale, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe).
February 2 – The magnitude 6.7 L’Aquila earthquake affects Central Italy, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). In the final large event (an example of Coulomb stress transfer), damage occurs as far distant as Rome, with landslides, liquefaction, slope failures and 2,500–3,000 deaths.
December 7–10 (November 26–29 O.S.) – The Great Storm of 1703, an Atlantic hurricane, ravages southern England and the English Channel, killing at least 8,000, mostly at sea. The Eddystone Lighthouse off Plymouth is destroyed in the storm together with its designer Henry Winstanley.
The Double Trigon Minimum
In the context of Leona Libby’s chronology it’s apparent the Double Trigon period of 120 years that’s centred upon Kepler’s Fiery Trigon of 1703 is very significant.
Kepler’s Fiery Trigon heralded the Maunder Minimum minimum.
○ The start of the Double Trigon is heralded by a Shoulder Trigon.
○ The mid-point of the Double Trigon is heralded by a Fiery Trigon.
○ The end of the Double Trigon is heralded by a Shoulder Trigon.
It’s debatable whether the Jupiter-Saturn alignment with Andromeda is significant.
The Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way at about 110 kilometres per second (68 miles per second).
The fate of the Triangulum Galaxy is unclear, but seems to be linked to its larger neighbor the Andromeda Galaxy.
What’s less debatable is that the ~ 60 Year Trigon is worthy of further investigation.
This is especially true when bold claims are made that “no single astronomical effect” can explain the ~ 60-year oscillation identified in numerous terrestrial datasets.
In this post, a 60 year oscillation with an amplitude of 0.1C is identified in the HadCrut global temperature data and will likely cause a halt in global warming over the next decade or so.
An astronomical origin is proposed as a possible cause of this effect.
No single astronomical effect can explain the 60 year time period, so the possibility of an interference between the 11 year variation in solar irradiance with magnitude 0.05C and an 18.6 year 0.05C ocean tidal component due to precession of the moon’s orbit plane has been investigated.
However, there is no convincing evidence that this can drive the 60 year 0.1C temperature oscillation either.
A 60 Year Oscillation in Global Temperature Data and Possible Explanations
Clive Best – 20 June 2011