Antarctic Guide to the First Millennium

Antarctic  Guide

There is no official mainstream historical narrative for Antarctica during the 1st millennium because [so we are told] Antarctica was only discovered in 1820.

In 1820, several expeditions claimed to have been the first to have sighted the ice shelf or the continent.

The first landing was probably just over a year later when American Captain John Davis, a sealer, set foot on the ice.

Antarctica Maps

Oronce Finé (20 December 1494 – 8 August 1555) was a French mathematician and cartographer.

In several years of research, the projection of this ancient map was worked out.

It was found to have been drawn on a sophisticated map projection, with the use of trigonometry, and to be so scientific that over fifty locations on the Antarctic continent have been found to be located on it with accuracy that was not attained by modern cartographic science until the nineteenth century.

In final comment on this extraordinary evidence, I will say that though this map is proved to have existed as far back as 1531, no map of this accuracy could have been drawn in modern times until the invention of the chronometer in the reign of George III about the year 1780.

This instrument first made possible the accurate determination of longitude.

The mathematical probabilities of anyone’s accidentally getting so many points right on a map are fewer than one in a hundred million.

Path of the Pole – Charles Hapgood – 1970

However, references to the Antarctic date back to Marinus of Tyre [circa 70 – 130 AD] who stated the Earth’s Equatorial Circumference was “180,000 stadia” [33,300 kilometres].

Marinus of Tyre (c. AD 70–130) was a Greek or Hellenized geographer, cartographer and mathematician, who founded mathematical geography and provided the underpinnings of Claudius Ptolemy’s influential Geography.

Marinus’s geographical treatise is lost and known only from Ptolemy’s remarks.

His chief legacy is that he first assigned to each place a proper latitude and longitude.

His zero meridian ran through the westernmost land known to him, the Isles of the Blessed around the location of the Canary or Cape Verde Islands.

He used the parallel of Rhodes for measurements of latitude.

Ptolemy mentions several revisions of Marinus’s geographical work, which is often dated to AD 114 although this is uncertain.

Marinus estimated a length of 180,000 stadia for the equator, roughly corresponding to a circumference of the Earth of 33,300 km, about 17% less than the actual value.

His maps were the first in the Roman Empire to show China.

He also invented equirectangular projection, which is still used in map creation today.

Marinus also coined the term Antarctic, referring to the opposite of the Arctic Circle.

Unsurprisingly, the concept of the Earth’s Girth inflating by 20% [6,775 / 33,300 = 20.34534 %] in the last 2,000 years is totally unacceptable to Settled Science.

Thus, given the pristine white canvas of Antarctica, the Earth Scientists have entered into an academic affray over who has the longest Antarctic Appendage.

For example, the Vostok Ice Core reached 3,623 metres in 1996 and it is claimed this ice core provides “a record of past environmental conditions stretching back 420,000 years”.

Vostok Research Station is about 1,300 km (≈800 mi) from the Geographic South Pole, at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and within the Australian Antarctic Territory.

The station is at 3,488 metres (11,444 ft) above sea level and is one of the most isolated established research stations on the Antarctic continent.

In the 1970s the Soviet Union drilled a set of cores 500–952 m deep.

These have been used to study the oxygen isotope composition of the ice, which showed that ice of the last glacial period was present below about 400 m depth.

Then three more holes were drilled: in 1984, Hole 3G reached a final depth of 2202 m; in 1990, Hole 4G reached a final depth of 2546 m; and in 1993 Hole 5G reached a depth of 2755 m; after a brief closure, drilling continued during the winter of 1995.

In 1996 it was stopped at depth 3623 m, by the request of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research that expressed worries about possible contamination of Lake Vostok.

This ice core, drilled collaboratively with the French, produced a record of past environmental conditions stretching back 420,000 years and covering four previous glacial periods.

Although the Vostok core reached a depth of 3623 m the usable climatic information does not extend down this far. The very bottom of the core is ice refrozen from the waters of Lake Vostok and contains no climate information.

Vostok Deuterium content in SMOW

Petit, J.R., et al., 2001,
Vostok Ice Core Data for 420,000 Years, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center
for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series #2001-076.
NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA.

The Vostok Ice Core [vintage 1996] can be recalibrated using inflection point analysis [aka wiggle matching] and the Japanese Cedar Isotopic Tree Thermometer.

Old Japanese Cedar DH Ratio - No Trend

Isotopic Tree Thermometers
Leona Marshall Libby, Louis J Pandolfi, Patrick H Payton, John Marshall III, Bernd Becker and V Giertz-Sienbenlist
Nature 261, 284 – 288 – 27 May 1976


Japan vs Vostok

Although this recalibration will be hard to swallow for many observers it should be noted the Linear Regression formulae indicate these traces are well aligned.

Japan vs Vostok - Trend

The temperature record by H. H. Lamb [1965] echoes the recalibrated Vostok trace.

The Early Medieval Warm Epoch and Its Sequel

The Early Medieval Warm Epoch and Its Sequel
H. H. Lamb – Meteorological Office, Bracknell
Elsevier Publishing Company – 1965

Click to access lamb.ppp.1965.pdf


Even the temperature record from the IPCC [1990] echoes the recalibrated Vostok trace.

The Global Warming Folly – 1999 – Zbigniew Jaworowski

The Global Warming Folly – Zbigniew Jaworowski – 1999

The recalibrated Vostok Ice Core displays [on average] an accumulation rate of 1.77 metres per year whilst in Greenland a “burial rate of 1.72 metres per year” has been observed.

During WWII some American fighter planes were forced to land on the Greenland ice cap due to running out of fuel.

The planes became quickly buried and disappeared from sight.

These planes were discovered 46 years (in 1986) later at a depth of 260 feet, or 79.25 metres, which the New York Times reported in 1988. This suggests that an estimate of burial rate could be calculated as a first pass attempt.

From the reported depth of burial, 260 feet below surface, and the 46 year time span, we can obtain a burial rate of 1.72 metres per year; ([260×0.3048]/46).


Vostok Ice Core Chronology

Perhaps it’s time to dust off those Charles Hapgood books.

Charles Hutchins Hapgood (May 17, 1904 – December 21, 1982) was an American college professor and author who became one of the best known advocates of the claim of a rapid and recent pole shift with catastrophic results.

In 1958, Hapgood published The Earth’s Shifting Crust which denied the existence of continental drift and featured a foreword by Albert Einstein.

In Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings (1966) and The Path of the Pole (1970), Hapgood proposed the hypothesis that the Earth’s axis has shifted numerous times during geological history.


Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings – Charles Hapgood – 1966

Hapgood produces concrete evidence of an advanced worldwide civilization existing many thousands of years before ancient Egypt.

He has found the evidence in many beautiful maps long known to scholars, the Piri Reis Map that shows Antarctica, the Hadji Ahmed map, the Oronteus Finaeus and other amazing maps.

Hapgood concluded that these maps were made from more ancient maps from the various ancient archives around the world, now lost.

Path of the Pole – Charles Hapgood – 1970

The author, an academic, spent years researching Antarctica, ancient maps and the geological record.

‘The Path of the Pole’, his riveting account of how the poles have often changed position on the earth’s surface, is the culmination of his work.

Polar wandering is based on the idea that the outer shell (crust) of the earth shifts about from time to time, moving some continents toward and others away from the poles, changing their climates.

Nova et integra universi orbis descriptio - 1531 - Oronce Fine

And perhaps [one day] the Earth Scientists might return to Planet Earth.

This entry was posted in Books, Catastrophism, Earth, Glaciology, Greenland, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Inflating Earth, Old Japanese Cedar Tree, Radiocarbon Dating, Science, Uniformitarianism. Bookmark the permalink.

10 Responses to Antarctic Guide to the First Millennium

  1. Louis Hissink says:

    Another version of polar wandering was Hugh Auchincloss-Brown’s ideas of a careening earth from growing polar ice-caps causing rotational imbalance described in his book Catastrophes of the Earth. Also known as the HAB theory. His geology is a bit problematical though and his explanation for gravity is also novel.

  2. malagabay says:

    Hapgood was very interested in the work of Hugh Auchincloss-Brown.

    Some years ago Mr. Hugh Auchincloss Brown, an engineer, developed a theory that great polar icecaps might shift the poles by capsizing or careening the earth as a whole.

    He had a simple idea, suggested by his engineering experience.

    This was the concept of the centrifugal effect that may arise from the rotation of a body, if the body is not perfectly centered on its axis of rotation.

    Everyone has seen examples of the operation of centrifugal force.

    The principle can be demonstrated by the ordinary washing machine.

    I once put a heavy rug, all rolled up into a compact ball, into a washing machine, and of course when the machine was set in motion all the weight remained on one side of the axle.

    The rotation produced a very powerful sidewise heave.

    The centrifugal effect was sufficient to rip the bolts up out of what had been a fine antique floor.

    Engineers know that the slightest inaccuracy in the centering of a rapidly rotating mass, such as a flywheel, can result in shattering the rotating body.

    Brown pointed out that a polar icecap is an enormous body placed on the earth’s surface, and not perfectly centered on the axis of rotation.

    It must therefore create centrifugal effects, tending to unbalance the earth.

    He called attention to certain facts about Antarctica.

    Antarctica is a large continent, about twice the size of the United States.

    It is almost entirely covered by ice, and the ice is enormously thick.

    Antarctica contains many great mountain chains, some of them comparable to the Alps or the Rocky Mountains, but the ice is so thick that it reaches the tops of most of them, and sweeps over them.

    The ice sheet is thought to average a mile in thickness, and it may be twice as thick in places.

    It may contain as much as 6,000,000 cubic miles of ice.

    Much of this ice is an extra weight on the earth’s crust because it has accumulated so fast
    that there has been insufficient time for the earth’s crust to sink and adapt to it.

    As we shall see, Brown’s surmise that the Antarctic icecap has developed rapidly, and is growing even now (rather than retreating), is well supported by much recent evidence.

    Eaths Shifting Crust – Charles H. Hapgood – 1958 – Pantheon Books

    Hugh Auchincloss-Brown is also very interesting when he writes about tides.



  3. Oldmank says:

    Malagabay said: “The principle can be demonstrated by the ordinary washing machine.” The ordinary washing machine also shows how the axis of rotation can shift owing to a shift in the centre of mass of the improperly loaded drum.

    When one experiences the ‘ugly dance’ of an unbalanced turbine rotor weighing several tons one understands the possible effect of even a little excess weight. The change occurs both in axis of rotation and precessing angle.

    See also here:

  4. More info on Antarctica from research on the 1700 Cascadia tsunami devastation –

    based on historic records

    total viewing time is under six minutes –

    Tsunami vs. Antarctic Ice:

    Part 1

    Part 2

    Follow-up videos are being uploaded this week which focus on the decimation caused by the 1700 Cascadia quake and tsunami

  5. re: “about 17% less than the actual value”

    Historic records suggest our Earth went through an expansion phase about 500 years ago –

    the evidence for this has not yet been published.

    The dating of ice core samples has about as much validity as carbon dating, geological data and archaeological dating – all four techniques are flawed which results in the chronology of the historic timeline being in significant error.

    Yes, the Antarctic ice sheet developed rapidly –

    from the 1800’s when very little ice was reported until now, when the ice sheets in the Arctic and the Antarctic are in rapid decline.

  6. I have uploaded videos which include historic records that give details of the location and size of Antarctica prior to 1700, along with the cause of the subsequent disappearance and reappearance of Antarctica – of course this is a huge slap in the face of seismologists, geologists, glaciologists and chemists – Why believe in the documentation from dozens and dozens of explorers from around the world if it goes against mainstream science? The historic records and explanations are in my April and May videos:

  7. Pingback: The Arabian Horizon – The Ptolemy Inheritance | MalagaBay

  8. HM says:

    Maybe the Kobuk Sand Dunes in Alaska have some explanation along these lines?

    visually incongruous, at least

    Currently 25-square-km they “covered as many as 200,000 acres immediately after the retreat of Pleistocene glaciation. The dunes were believed to have formed… some 150,000 years ago. “.

    I noticed in another post you were skeptical of the Eemian

  9. Louis Hissink says:

    Look for craters or Maars – water filled phreatomagmatic “volcanic” eruption centers as a possible source of the “sand” or Loess; and under the deposits as well,

  10. Pingback: Ptolemy’s Paradigm: Antarctic Alignment | MalagaBay

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