The Heinsohn Horizon and The Round Towers

The Heinsohn Horizon and The Round Towers

A frequently referenced truism is: History is Written by the Victors.

However, there are situations where: History is Written by the Survivors.

This was especially true after the Heinsohn Horizon [around the 930s AD] when the Machiavellian Monasteries began manufacturing their historical narrative.

Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.

The Academic Abyss

Fundamentally, the Machiavellian Monasteries employed classic propaganda techniques.

With doublethink, the people believe what they otherwise know is false; in believing the revised (new) past, the new past is what was, hence “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.

The Machiavellian Monasteries also manufactured churches which incorporated round towers [with conical roofs] that architecturally evolved [over the centuries] into church spires.

A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower.

Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass.

However, in many cases, the evidence suggests these round tower spires [with conical roofs] pre-dated Christianity and that the Machiavellian Monasteries were physically retro-fitting [aka bolting on] their churches onto pre-existing round towers that occupied sacred sites.

Fundamentally, the Machiavellian Monasteries employed another classic corporate strategy of embrace, extend, and extinguish as they battled to establish a religious monopoly after the Heinsohn Horizon.

Embrace, extend, and extinguish“, also known as “Embrace, extend, and exterminate”, is a phrase that the U.S. Department of Justice found that was used internally by Microsoft to describe its strategy for entering product categories involving widely used standards, extending those standards with proprietary capabilities, and then using those differences to disadvantage its competitors.,_extend_and_extinguish

In subsequent centuries the Machiavellian Monasteries began to cover their tracks as they sought a varnish of respectability to protect [and justify] their power and wealth.

Aided and abetted by Anaemic Academics the Machiavellian Monasteries have rewritten history to effectively mask the round tower cultures that existed before the Heinsohn Horizon but they haven’t managed to physically eliminate all of these ancient round towers.

When Ignatius Donnelly began investigating the history of the Irish round towers he encountered the preposterous situation where the Anaemic Academics claimed the Irish round towers “were built by the Christian priests” whilst the history books manufactured by the Machiavellian Monasteries clearly stated that these “singular temples of round form” pre-dated the Christian era.

Attempts have been made to show, by Dr. Petrie and others, that these extraordinary structures are of modern origin, and were built by the Christian priests, in which to keep their church-plate.

But it is shown that the “Annals of Ulster” mention the destruction of fifty-seven of them by an earthquake in A.D. 448; and Giraldus Cambrensis shows that Lough Neagh was created by an inundation, or sinking of the land, in A.D. 05, and that in his day the fishermen could

” See the round-towers of other days
In the waves beneath them shining;.”

Moreover, we find Diodorus Siculus, in a well-known passage, referring to Ireland, and describing it as ” an island in the ocean over against Gaul, to the north, and not inferior in size to Sicily, the soil of which is so fruitful that they mow there twice in the year.”

He mentions the skill of their harpers, their sacred groves, and their singular temples of round form.

Atlantis: The Antediluvian World – Ignatius Donnelly – 1882

The Annals of Ulster (Irish: Annála Uladh) are annals of medieval Ireland.

The entries span the years from AD 431 to AD 1540.

The entries up to AD 1489 were compiled in the late 15th century by the scribe Ruaidhrí Ó Luinín, under his patron Cathal Óg Mac Maghnusa on the island of Belle Isle on Lough Erne in the province of Ulster.

Later entries (up to AD 1540) were added by others.

Gerald of Wales (Latin: Giraldus Cambrensis; Welsh: Gerallt Gymro; French: Gerald de Barri; c. 1146 – c. 1223) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.

Diodorus Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.

He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC.

This preposterous situation continues to this day and the Anaemic Academics are still resorting to misinformation, diversion, obscuration and controversy to cover the gaping holes in the official historical narrative that was originally established by the Machiavellian Monasteries.

Wikipedia reflects this general trend towards obscuration when they describe Irish round towers as “early medieval” structures that were “probably built between the 9th and 12th centuries”.

Irish round towers (Irish: Cloigtheach (singular), Cloigthithe (plural) – literally “bell house”) are early medieval stone towers of a type found mainly in Ireland, with two in Scotland and one on the Isle of Man.

The towers were probably built between the 9th and 12th centuries.

The round tower seems to be the only significant stone building in Ireland before the advent of the Normans in 1167 AD.

Regarding their purpose Wikipedia is a treasure trove of diverting mainstream misinformation which still references the works of the revered Anaemic Academic George Petrie.

However, after all the waffle, Wikipedia informs the reader that in the last 130 years the preferred mainstream narrative for Irish round towers has evolved from a secure place to keep church-plate to an equally preposterous “belfry” story-line.

Though there is no certain agreement as to their purpose, it is thought that they may have been bell towers, places of refuge, or both.

The purpose of the towers has been somewhat unclear until recent times.

A popular hypothesis in the past was that the towers were originally a redoubt against raiders such as Vikings.

If a lookout posted in the tower spotted a Viking force, the local population (or at least the clerics) would enter, using a ladder which could be raised from within.

The towers would be used to store religious relics and other plunderables.

However, there are many problems with this hypothesis.

Many towers are built in positions which are not ideal to survey the surrounding countryside and would not work efficiently as watch towers for incoming attacks.

In addition, the doors to these towers would have been wooden and therefore easily burned down.

Furthermore, due to the almost chimney-like design of the towers, the smoke from the burning door would have been carried upwards inside the tower causing any occupants to suffocate.

Therefore, it is more likely that the primary reason for the round tower was to act as a belfry, imitating the continental European style of bell tower which was popular at the time.[citation needed]

The Irish word for round tower, cloigtheach, literally meaning bellhouse indicates this, as noted by George Petrie in 1845.

However, the Irish language has greatly evolved over the last millennium.

Dinneen notes the alternate pronunciations, cluiceach and cuilceach for cloigtheach.

The closely pronounced cloichtheach means stone-house or stone-building.

Although the physical evidence pointing towards a bell tower is strong, we must await confirmation from original sources such as glyphs on medieval manuscripts.

Sadly, for the Anaemic Academics, the “belfry” hypothesis was shown to be a “preposterous” proposition [a mere] 184 years ago.

To conclude, therefore, this portion of our investigation, I shall observe, in Dr. Milner’s words,

“that none of these towers are large enough for a single bell, of a moderate size, to swing about in it ; that, from the whole of their form and dimensions, and from the smallness of the apertures in them, they are rather calculated to stifle than to transmit to a distance any sound that is made in them : lastly, that though, possibly, a small bell may have been accidentally put up in one or two of them at some late period, yet we constantly find other belfries, or contrivances for hanging bells, in the churches adjoining to them.

I fear greatly I may have bestowed too much pains in dispelling the delusion of this preposterous opinion.

The Round Towers Of Ireland – H O’Brien – 1834

Reviewing the extant Irish round towers underlines the preposterous nature of the “belfry” hypothesis because some Irish round towers are not associated with churches.

However, the extant Irish round towers clearly indicate that Christian churches were frequently built in close proximity to ancient round towers.

The monastery of Clonmacnoise is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone.

The site includes the ruins of a cathedral, seven churches, two round towers, three high crosses and a large collection of Early Christian graveslabs.


Generally found in the vicinity of a church or monastery, the door of the tower faces the west doorway of the church.

Irish Round Towers

In Scotland the mainstream propagates the same level of confusion [and never ending controversy] whenever they discuss Irish-style round tower.

This level of mainstream obscuration is underlined in Abernethy where the dating of the Irish-style round tower is qualified by “probably” and “believed”.

Abernethy is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, situated 8 mi (13 km) south-east of Perth.

It has one of Scotland’s two surviving Irish-style round towers (the other is at Brechin, Angus; both are in the care of Historic Scotland).

The tower was evidently built in two stages (shown by a change in the masonry), and probably dates to the 11th-early 12th centuries.,_Perth_and_Kinross

It is believed to date from around AD 1100, judging by the decoration around the first-floor doorway and the four belfry windows.

Historic Environment Scotland – Abernethy Round Tower

The Scottish brochs fair no better because the mainstream pontification regarding this style of round tower is [also] mired in never ending “controversy” and obscuration that closely mirrors the antics of the Irish Anaemic Academics.

A broch is an Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland.

Their origin is a matter of some controversy.

The Shetland Amenity Trust lists about 120 sites in Shetland as candidate brochs, while the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) identifies a total of 571 candidate broch sites throughout the country.


Meanwhile, the increasing number – albeit still pitifully few – of radiocarbon dates for the primary use of brochs (as opposed to their later, secondary use) still suggests that most of the towers were built in the 1st centuries BC and AD.

A few may be earlier, notably the one proposed for Old Scatness Broch in Shetland, where a sheep bone dating to 390–200 BC has been reported.

The original interpretation of brochs, favoured by nineteenth century antiquarians, was that they were defensive structures, places of refuge for the community and their livestock.

They were sometimes regarded as the work of Danes or Picts.

From the 1930s to the 1960s, archaeologists like V. Gordon Childe and later John Hamilton regarded them as castles where local landowners held sway over a subject population.

The castle theory fell from favour among Scottish archaeologists in the 1980s, due to a lack of supporting archaeological evidence.

These archaeologists suggested that defensibility was never a major concern in the siting of a broch, and argued that they may have been the “stately homes” of their time, objects of prestige and very visible demonstrations of superiority for important families (Armit 2003).

Once again, however, there is a lack of archaeological proof for this reconstruction, and the sheer number of brochs, sometimes in places with a lack of good land, makes it problematic.

Brochs’ close groupings and profusion in many areas may indeed suggest that they had a primarily defensive or even offensive function.

In Wales the ravages of time [ably assisted by the Anaemic Academics and the Machiavellian Monasteries] has eliminated [or assimilated] the few remaining relics of the round tower culture.

The Roman Tower at Caerleon, Monmouthshire

The building whose ruins are here delineated stands at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, near the bridge laid over the river Usk; it is generally supposed of Roman construction, there having been a Roman station at this place, and the remains of an Amphitheatre; Baths, and other Roman works, being still discoverable, about and within the enceinte of its walls, which are said to have been near three miles in compass.

It seems difficult to assign the use for which this tower could have been built, its size for which the figures may serve as a scale, shew it could scarcely have been intended for defence, as from its smallness it could contain but very few men; perhaps it might be intended for a stair-case, or as the towers in Burgh caftle near Yarmouth, the Gariononum of the Romans, for a buttress to prop and strengthen the adjacent wall.

The antiquities of England and Wales Vol III New Edition – 1872 – Francis Grose

Llandysilio is a village and community in Powys, Wales.

The present parish church, dedicated to Saint Tysilio, dates from 1867 but tradition states that a church was founded here by Tysilio in the seventh century.

In England the Machiavellian Monasteries [tended to] unceremoniously bolt on their churches to the ancient round towers after the Heinsohn Horizon.

The unimaginative English have singularly failed to conjure-up a robust story-line for their round towers and the Anaemic Academics have simply resorted to an authoritarian promulgation that these round-tower churchesshould not be confused” with the Irish round towers.

Round-tower churches are a type of church found mainly in England, mostly in East Anglia; of about 185 surviving examples in the country, 124 are in Norfolk, 38 in Suffolk, 6 in Essex, 3 in Sussex and 2 each in Cambridgeshire and Berkshire.

The reason for their construction – mostly by the Saxons – is a matter of dispute.

Round-tower churches should not be confused with similarly shaped structures such as the Irish round towers found in Ireland and Scotland, or with round churches, which have a circular plan and are often found in Denmark or Sweden.

Round-Tower Churches

There has been considerable discussion and disagreement about the age of round towers.

The relatively unsophisticated design of many round towers, the use of what appear to be Saxon features, and the absence of round towers in Norman or French Romanesque churches have lead some writers to suggest that they date from Saxon times before the Norman conquest in 1066.

The founder of the Round Tower Church Society, Bill Goode, suggested that a substantial proportion of round towers were of pre-conquest date.

However, Stephen Hart and others argue that many round towers are of a later date.

There are no records and so no hard evidence about when towers were built or when changes were made to church architecture.

Round Tower Churches Society – About Round Tower Churches

In France the Machiavellian Monasteries have predominately smoothed over their round tower problem by [either] bolting on a church or by employing them as stylish lanterns of the dead centrepieces in their cemeteries.

Lanterns of the Dead are small stone towers found chiefly in the centre and west of France, pierced with small openings at the top, where a light was exhibited at night to indicate the position of a cemetery.

These towers were usually circular, with a small entrance in the lower part giving access to the interior, so as to raise the lamps by a pulley to the required height.

One of the most perfect in France is that at Cellefrouin (Charente), which consists of a series of eight attached semicircular shafts, raised on a pedestal, and is crowned with a conical roof decorated with fir cones; it has only one aperture, towards the main road. Other examples exist at Ciron (Indre) and Antigny (Vienne).

There is one surviving example in England, in the churchyard at Bisley, Gloucestershire, which is referred to as the Poor Souls’ Light.

The origin and use of such lanterns are controversial.

Lanterns of the Dead

Inventaire des lanternes des morts en France – Francis Cahuzac

In Germany the Machiavellian Monasteries also bolted on churches to the round towers after the Heinsohn Horizon.

There is evidence of about twenty round-tower churches in Germany, of similar design and construction to those in East Anglia.

However, there are still some remaining stand-alone round towers in Germany which the the Anaemic Academics classify as Roman, medieval and [even] stand-alone castles.


Grubenhagen Castle (German: Burg Grubenhagen) is a ruined medieval castle in North Germany dating to the 13th century.

Only the round, 18 metre high bergfried remains today.

It is not clear exactly when the castle was built, but it probably appeared during the reign of Henry the Lion (1129 to 1195).

There is evidence of about twenty round-tower churches in Germany, of similar design and construction to those in East Anglia.

In Spain there are still many stand-alone round towers which are [usually] uncherished and ignored because the compliant Anaemic Academics unquestioningly dismiss them as Islamic Watchtowers [or occasionally as Roman Towers].


In Sardinia the Anaemic Academics re-branded their round towers as nuraghes before they [successfully and very conveniently] sidelined their round towers into an isolated backwater that is labelled The Nuragic Civilization in the official historical narrative.

Sardinian Nuraghes

The nuraghe is the main type of ancient megalithic edifice found in Sardinia, developed during the Nuragic Age between 1900 and 730 BCE.

The Nuragic civilization was a civilization of Sardinia, lasting from the Bronze Age (18th century BC) to the 2nd century AD.

In mainland Italy it appears Mother Nature [probably assisted afterwards by the Machiavellian Monasteries] destroyed the Italian round towers at the Heinsohn Horizon.

The Italians never really embraced the spire as an architectural feature, preferring the classical styles.

The gothic style was a feature of Germanic northern Europe and was never to the Italian taste, and the few gothic buildings in Italy always seem incongruous.

An exception might be the round bell tower in Caorle [built in 1048] where it’s design, masonry and stand-alone position suggest it could have been built upon the ruins of a round tower.


Caorle (Càorle) is a coastal town in the province of Venice, Veneto, Italy, located between the estuaries of the Livenza and Lemene rivers.

It is situated on the Adriatic Sea between two other famous tourist towns, Eraclea and Bibione.

The Cathedral of St. Stephen was built in 1038, an example of Romanesque and of the Byzantine-Ravennate style.

Outside, the characteristic bell tower, dating to 1048, rises to a height of 48 meters.

Other exceptions might be found in Ravenna.

Mausoleum of Theoderic

Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.

It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476.

Theoderic died in 526 and was succeeded by his young grandson Athalaric under the authority of his daughter Amalasunta, but by 535 both were dead and Theoderic’s line was represented only by Amalasuntha’s daughter Matasuntha.

One of the more curious aspects of this round tower narrative is that it suggests an unspecified [and widespread] pre-Christian belief system was flourishing in Western Europe immediately before Heinsohn Horizon

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37 Responses to The Heinsohn Horizon and The Round Towers

  1. malagabay says:

    An intriguing possibility in Kent.

    Westenhanger Castle is a fortified manor house once owned by royalty, located next to Westenhanger railway station and the grandstand of Folkestone Racecourse in Kent.

    In its heyday, Westenhanger Castle was a fortified 14th century quadrangular manor house reflecting the opulence of its owners at that time.

    However, its history began almost 1,000 years ago, in 1035, when King Canute owned the estate.

  2. JuergenK says:

    Hundreds of towers in the Himalayans and West China.
    Nobody knows their purpose.

    • malagabay says:

      I’m amazed – Thank you.

      The Himalayan Towers also called Stone star-shaped towers, are a series of stone towers located mostly in Kham, a province of premodern Tibet, and in Sichuan. The towers are located principally in the Changtang and Kongpo regions of Tibet as well as in the area inhabited by the modern Qiang people and in the historical region inhabited by the Western Xia.

      These towers can be found both in cities and in uninhabited regions. They were described for the first time during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). Carbon dating by Frederique Darragon shows they were built approximately 500-1800 years ago.[citation needed] Since they are generally located in prosperous villages, it is believed that their primary function was as a demonstration of a family’s prestige within the community. At that time, wealth was acquired especially by the trade with the Mongols. For strength, many of the towers use a star pattern of walls as opposed to a strictly rectangular method. Heights can exceed 60 metres (200 ft).

      Frederique Darragon is a French explorer known for her documentary film The Secret Towers of the Himalayas, which chronicled her expedition to the mystifying stone towers of Sichuan and Tibet. She wrote a book also titled The Secret Towers of the Himalayas. She is founder and president of the Unicorn Foundation, where profits from the film were contributed. She is the co-founder of the Sichuan University Unicorn Heritage Institute.

      She made several important discoveries. By carbon-dating bits of wood from the internal structure of the towers, she confirmed that they were built 500 to 1,800 years ago.

      • JuergenK says:

        You’re welcome.
        Drop me a message and I shall send you some thoughts on the linguistics of belfry.

  3. Louis Hissink says:

    Given the fact churches were regarded as sanctuaries or safe-havens, I wonder if this role came about from the older towers that also might have been used as a sanctuary from who or what…megafauna? Mysterious none the less.

  4. Pingback: Henry O’Brien and The Round Towers | MalagaBay

  5. malagabay says:

    Cieszyn in southern Poland has a very a curious Romanesque “rotunda church”

    Saint Nicholas rotunda church, build in 1st half of 11th century, 2nd half of 15th century, 1839, 20th century


  6. Pingback: Philip Callahan and The Round Towers | MalagaBay

  7. malagabay says:

    Notes on Irish Architecture – Volume 2
    Edwin, Third Earl of Dunraven – 1877

    Uzès [southern France] Cathedral Saint Théodorit
    Wikimedia – User Poppy

  8. Pingback: George Lennox Barrow and The Round Towers | MalagaBay

  9. malagabay says:

    Voyages and Travels to India, Ceylon, The Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt
    in the Years 1802, 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806 – Volume 1
    George, Viscount Valentia – 1809

  10. Pingback: The Round Belfries of Ireland | MalagaBay

  11. malagabay says:

    The Chindia Tower (Romanian: Turnul Chindiei) is a tower in the Curtea Domnească monuments ensemble in Târgovişte, Romania, built in the 15th century. The tower was begun during the second reign of Prince Vlad III the Impaler over Wallachia,

    It is not known exactly when the Curtea Domnească complex was built, but it certainly replaces an old manor house still in place by the 15th century, during the reign of Mircea I of Wallachia.

  12. Louis Hissink says:

    If the towers predate the Heinsohn Horizon, that has to make them Roman ? Something not gelling here.

    • malagabay says:

      That’s why I find the Round Towers of Ireland so fascinating.

      They are a mainstream back water that doesn’t gell.

      And the ecclesiastical wall paper can’t hide the cracks in their storyline.

      Ireland was never part of the Roman Empire but the mainstream still likes to suggest “classical civilization” arrived in Ireland only after the Romans left Britain.

      Ireland was one of only a few areas of western Europe that was not conquered by Rome.

      Rome never annexed Hibernia (the Latin name for Ireland) into the Roman Empire, but did exert influence on the island, although only a small amount of evidence of this has survived.

      Later, during the collapse of Roman authority in the 4th and 5th centuries, Irish tribes raided Britain and may have brought back Roman knowledge of classical civilization.

      Therefore, the Round Towers of Ireland suggest:

      1) “classical civilization” had spread across Europe long before the Romans arrived.
      2) “classical civilization” didn’t originate in Roman [or Greece].
      3) “classical civilization” wasn’t as “classical” nor as “civilized” as we are told.

      My perspective is that the Second Roman Empire [aka the Church of Rome] rewrote history [after the Heinsohn Horizon] as required to suit their expansionist/subjugation objects.

      To validate the mainstream historical narrative it is necessary to reference sources that weren’t written [or rewritten or interpreted] by the Second Roman Empire.

      If the cross referencing doesn’t “gell” then the mainstream narrative is suspect.

      My perspective is that everything in the historical narrative before the Heinsohn Horizon is suspect and that the reliability of the mainstream narrative only begins to improve after the introduction of the Gregorian calendar.

      The Gregorian calendar was a reform of the Julian calendar instituted in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by papal bull Inter gravissimas dated 24 February 1582.

      The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.

      The tragedy is that Uniformitarianism has been slowly eating away at Academia for the last two hundred years and that Uniformitarianism is just an academic extension of the Second Roman Empire where the victors write the belief system.

      Bottom line:

      I don’t think it is safe to assume there is solid ground in the historical narrative before the Heinsohn Horizon especially as [just about] everything we “know” about the First Roman Empire was written/rewritten/translated/interpreted by the Second Roman Empire [and/or the Uniformitarians].

      From a British perspective the Academic Abyss is typified by the Vikings who appear to have [very conveniently] stopped marauding as soon as the Second Roman Empire arrived in Britain during 1066.

      The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.

      The Viking Age is the period A.D. 793–1066 in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.

      It is the period of history when Scandinavian Norsemen explored Europe by its seas and rivers for trade, raids and conquest.

      • Louis Hissink says:

        Ah, this makes sense. The last weekend I stumbled over some evidence that the Roman Empire based its calendar on the moon, and Julius Caesar had his difficulties, among others, with establishing a reliable calendar and this was one reason of many why he was despatched. This fits in with Jewish practice of using a lunar calendar too.

        I had settled on 1582 as the earliest accurate calendar date, the Gregorian calendar, the Julian one being essentially a dog’s breakfast.

        However in my experience the fabrication of history doesn’t appear to be a wilful fabrication but rather the compilation of history according to what the author’s believed to be the case. Keith Windschuttle wrote a number of books in the Fabrication of Australian Aboriginal History series, which describes the problem rather well. My own experience with Aboriginals and their stories/histories are seriously anachronistic in terms of settle science, but the power of belief is such that such anachronisms are dismissed. And having to deal with climate change believers supports the contention that they actually believe it to be happening and a fact, when in reality it isn’t. The power of belief is far stronger than what many of us think it to be; little wonder ‘facts’ don’t affect true believers.

        However the fact that ruling elites have no difficulty airbrushing personalities from photographed history, the Stalin example, means we cannot assume received history is the result of sincere misunderstanding of what actually happened and that malevolent input therefore cannot be discounted.

        Quiet frankly I don’t think we can extrapolate the present-day calendar any further back that say, 1066 AD, and that earlier history has to be described as a ranking of events in order of stratigraphy, rather than based on absolute time as is the present case.

        As for the round towers etc, this is all new to me and it seems global but none found in the Americas?

        What a fictitious farrago history has become.

      • malagabay says:

        This is what I have found in the Americas:


        The Mitla site in Mexico might have more in common with India than just mosaic fretwork and geometric designs…

        Wikimedia – Alberto Talavera Ortiz

        And there are the Chullpas on the Altiplano in Peru and Bolivia.

        Wikimedia – Unukorno

  13. Louis Hissink says:

    Isn’t there a tower of sorts in Massachusetts region as well, attributed to the Vikings? Which leaves Australia….

    • malagabay says:

      Australia is very interesting…
      No Round Towers so far.
      But there are some very intriguing observations.
      I am still researching and will write it up soon.

  14. malagabay says:

    There is the disputed Newport Tower.

    The Newport Tower (also known as: Round Tower, Touro Tower, Newport Stone Tower and Old Stone Mill) is a round stone tower located in Touro Park in Newport, Rhode Island (USA), the remains of a windmill built in the mid-17th century.

    The tower has received attention due to speculation that it is actually several centuries older and would thus represent evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. Carbon dating shows this belief to be incorrect.

    But it does look very similar to the disputed Chesterton Windmill.

    Chesterton Windmill is a 17th-century cylindric stone tower windmill with an arched base, located outside the village of Chesterton, Warwickshire. It is a Grade I listed building and a striking landmark in South-East Warwickshire.

    It was built around 1632-1633, probably by Sir Edward Peyto, who was Lord of the Chesterton Manor House. At this time John Stone, a pupil of Inigo Jones, was in Chesterton designing the new Manor House and he probably helped with the windmill as well. Sir Edward was a Mathematician and Astrologer and probably his own architect to the windmill, but although claims have been made that the tower was originally built as an observatory, the estate accounts now at Warwick Record Office show that it has always been a windmill, making it the earliest tower mill in England to retain any of its working parts.

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  16. malagabay says:

    France – Lorraine – Vosges – Épinal

    La basilique Saint-Maurice d’Épinal est un édifice religieux construit, pour son état actuel, entre les XIe siècle et XIIIe siècle, elle dépend du Diocèse de Saint-Dié.'%C3%89pinal

    • Louis Hissink says:

      I wonder how many of those towers survived the Heinsohn event in France, Germany ? Large tsunamis loaded with sediment, like the deposits in Rhine brown coal fields, would have knocked over an tall upstanding structures, as what seemed to happen in Rome concerning the obelisks etc, Yet Mike Bailey notes that Ireland ~ 6th century etc, seemed to have been knocked out by some catastrophe. Could not have been that large a catastrophe is most of the towers remained standing. That would also depend on how extensive the Holocene and Pleistocene deposits are. Very puzzling.

      • malagabay says:

        Agreed: Very puzzling – I guess there is still a long way to go 🙂

      • Martin Sieff says:

        I don’t think it’s puzzling at all.
        Louis the obvious conclusion to be drawn from what you write is that round towers of Ireland were built after the 914 AD catastrophe – if that is when it was.

        Clearly, a global catastrophe that toppled the great obelisks of Rome in 230 AD (conventional dating) would have toppled the brick built round towers of Ireland too.

        Nor is there any sign of them belonging to some antediluvian or even bronze age civilization whose other abundant remains magically disappeared.

        The most likely conclusion about the Irish round towers is that they do belong, at least in their current form to a later period and were indeed built or rebuilt to provide warnings of Saxon or later Viking sea invaders.

        As far as I know, there is no significant tradition of, or terror of mega fauna in ancient Ireland and the country has been bereft for millennia of significant forests.

        Perhaps the towers were built as observatories – providing they had open access at their tops to provide warning of comets threatening from space rather than more mundane human invaders of terrestrial origin.

  17. The Ultimate Observer says:

    Depicted are round towers from a number of epochs.
    The oldest, like those in Ireland are sophisticated agriculture technology. It was a manner of capturing electro-magnetic energy from the sun and to distribute to the land surrounding the tower. These “antenna” could be adjusted by adding soil via the opening some 10 to twenty feet above the base. They were constructed of highly para-megnetic rock to absorb the radiating energy from the sun. Churches were added later — but they may have been aware of the positive energy characteristics of the local area around the tower.
    Later dated towers, often attached to forts, were designed with military technology in mind. Rounded towers would be less conducive to damage from projectiles that could result in fatal damage to the structural integrity of the edifice.

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  19. Scott Gracie says:

    I’ve been researching this stuff independently and my head has been exploding at the magnitude of the research……..then I stumbled upon your work. If only I had found it sooner 👍

  20. Broch researcher Alan Isle of Skye,
    The nearest Broch to my house is about one mile and another 3 miles. I can see a broch from my front living room using binoculars. There is hardly any Iron Age information and any maps from the Roman time of Ptolemy circumnavigation only show Roman Fort positions.
    It is also difficult to find any written information or drawing of a Broch after the Vikings landed on Scotland. I have moved away from looking for Brochs in Scotland and have had more luck abroad in Spain and Sardinia. The timescale is another factor, with the amount of Brochs found in Scotland, I think it would have been much earlier about 1,000BC when the Brochs started to get built.
    The Mediterranean area about this time was full of different countries trying to be more powerful than another. The main item everybody wanted was Tin, Gold, Copper, Iron which led to many wars.
    The area in Iberia called El Argar had the ores in large numbers and this made it a place for constant attack. What has this to do with Brochs? The area of El Argar started to build WATCHTOWERS that are of similar construction to Brochs.
    The Nuraghe people mixed with the local people of El Argar and this made the advancement in design.
    The only theory I have is that during the time of the Sea People attacks became more regular and many people decided to leave roundabout 1,000Bc and take there knowledge of the Watchtowers and building techniques. The only place they could find was Scotland as many other places had been taken like Cornwall, Wales, Ireland, Isle of Man.
    I have the possibility of finding an unregistered Hill fort and Cairn not far from my house.

  21. Charles Kos says:

    Thank you for an awesome blog post. I have been studying Round Towers for a long time to try and figure out the mystery. I think that O’Brien came closest, in stating that they are the Irish version of pyramids. The bell notion is somewhat preposterous yes. One Irish Round Tower was in fact modified in the late Middle Ages, to take a bell: the top widened and windows added to help allow the sound to escape. What prompted me to make a post was to state that I too have noticed that at a Polish cemetery, a funerary lantern tower, looked quite like an Irish Round tower. Cheers.

    • malagabay says:

      Thank you for the feedback – Tim

      Among European and Western culture, Polish cemeteries are unique. In a remarkable display of remembrance, they are often lavishly covered in flowers, pictures, mementos and candles, particularly around Roman Catholic holidays and especially on All Saints’ Day.

      Zakopane, Poland – Old Zakopane Cemetery
      Polish luminaries and masterful folk art find sanctuary in this unique cemetery.
      Atlas Obscura

      St. Giles-Church in Inowłódz (pol. Kościół św. Idziego) is a church in Poland. According to later inscription (presumably from 17th century) founded in 1082 by Władysław I Herman as thanks for birth of his son Bolesław III Wrymouth.'_Church,_Inow%C5%82%C3%B3dz

  22. Albertm says:

    “In Sardinia the Anaemic Academics re-branded their round towers as nuraghes before they [successfully and very conveniently] sidelined their round towers into an isolated backwater that is labelled The Nuragic Civilization in the official historical narrative.”

    I don’t get this, are you saying they were isolated or backwater?

    Because in actuality they were quite advanced for the time, especially when compared to the rest of Europe West of Greece.

    Or are you saying they are considered backwater by the academicians?

    But that’s not the case, at least not any longer., Academicians recognize hhow advanced they were architecturally and in metallurgy

    Also the wikipedia reports 18th bc-2nd century AD is quite questionable.

    Nuraghi were not built any longer after 1000 bc, as the Wikipedia page about the Nuraghi says itself:

    Not to mention the other Nuragic structures well temples, megaron temples, sanctuaries, fountains, pools etc all were abandoned too at least by the early iron age, and the bronze figurines and sandstone statues also stopped being produced by 800-750 bc, so there is no way the Nuragic civilization survived that long, Sardinia was fully Roman by well before and even the isolated areas didn’t have anything to do with the Nuragic culture.

    An accurate date for it would 1700-550 bc.

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  24. alan turkington says:

    In my research I have found a Broch like tower in the Fortress of KUE-Lap in Peru and at the same time I also found out that the people of the Fortress did not look local.
    The people had dark hair and some blond with blue eyes and white colour of skin.
    The people who live nearby have similar looks to Europeans and similar DNA.
    The Vikings come to mind and maybe the people are descendants of early Vikings who have been known to have travelled down the East coast of America and sailed up the Amazon River.

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