A frequently referenced truism is: History is Written by the Victors.
However, there are situations where: History is Written by the Survivors.
This was especially true after the Heinsohn Horizon [around the 930s AD] when the Machiavellian Monasteries began manufacturing their historical narrative.
Working backwards through the mainstream historical narrative we arrive at the Heinsohn Horizon in the 930s where the mainstream narrative falls into The Academic Abyss and degenerates into fiction, fantasy and fabrication for a period of 700 [phantom] years.
Fundamentally, the Machiavellian Monasteries employed classic propaganda techniques.
With doublethink, the people believe what they otherwise know is false; in believing the revised (new) past, the new past is what was, hence “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.”
The Machiavellian Monasteries also manufactured churches which incorporated round towers [with conical roofs] that architecturally evolved [over the centuries] into church spires.
A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower.
Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass.
However, in many cases, the evidence suggests these round tower spires [with conical roofs] pre-dated Christianity and that the Machiavellian Monasteries were physically retro-fitting [aka bolting on] their churches onto pre-existing round towers that occupied sacred sites.
Fundamentally, the Machiavellian Monasteries employed another classic corporate strategy of embrace, extend, and extinguish as they battled to establish a religious monopoly after the Heinsohn Horizon.
“Embrace, extend, and extinguish“, also known as “Embrace, extend, and exterminate”, is a phrase that the U.S. Department of Justice found that was used internally by Microsoft to describe its strategy for entering product categories involving widely used standards, extending those standards with proprietary capabilities, and then using those differences to disadvantage its competitors.
In subsequent centuries the Machiavellian Monasteries began to cover their tracks as they sought a varnish of respectability to protect [and justify] their power and wealth.
Aided and abetted by Anaemic Academics the Machiavellian Monasteries have rewritten history to effectively mask the round tower cultures that existed before the Heinsohn Horizon but they haven’t managed to physically eliminate all of these ancient round towers.
When Ignatius Donnelly began investigating the history of the Irish round towers he encountered the preposterous situation where the Anaemic Academics claimed the Irish round towers “were built by the Christian priests” whilst the history books manufactured by the Machiavellian Monasteries clearly stated that these “singular temples of round form” pre-dated the Christian era.
Attempts have been made to show, by Dr. Petrie and others, that these extraordinary structures are of modern origin, and were built by the Christian priests, in which to keep their church-plate.
But it is shown that the “Annals of Ulster” mention the destruction of fifty-seven of them by an earthquake in A.D. 448; and Giraldus Cambrensis shows that Lough Neagh was created by an inundation, or sinking of the land, in A.D. 05, and that in his day the fishermen could
” See the round-towers of other days
In the waves beneath them shining;.”
Moreover, we find Diodorus Siculus, in a well-known passage, referring to Ireland, and describing it as ” an island in the ocean over against Gaul, to the north, and not inferior in size to Sicily, the soil of which is so fruitful that they mow there twice in the year.”
He mentions the skill of their harpers, their sacred groves, and their singular temples of round form.
Atlantis: The Antediluvian World – Ignatius Donnelly – 1882
The Annals of Ulster (Irish: Annála Uladh) are annals of medieval Ireland.
The entries span the years from AD 431 to AD 1540.
The entries up to AD 1489 were compiled in the late 15th century by the scribe Ruaidhrí Ó Luinín, under his patron Cathal Óg Mac Maghnusa on the island of Belle Isle on Lough Erne in the province of Ulster.
Later entries (up to AD 1540) were added by others.
Gerald of Wales (Latin: Giraldus Cambrensis; Welsh: Gerallt Gymro; French: Gerald de Barri; c. 1146 – c. 1223) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.
Diodorus Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC.
This preposterous situation continues to this day and the Anaemic Academics are still resorting to misinformation, diversion, obscuration and controversy to cover the gaping holes in the official historical narrative that was originally established by the Machiavellian Monasteries.
Wikipedia reflects this general trend towards obscuration when they describe Irish round towers as “early medieval” structures that were “probably built between the 9th and 12th centuries”.
Irish round towers (Irish: Cloigtheach (singular), Cloigthithe (plural) – literally “bell house”) are early medieval stone towers of a type found mainly in Ireland, with two in Scotland and one on the Isle of Man.
The towers were probably built between the 9th and 12th centuries.
The round tower seems to be the only significant stone building in Ireland before the advent of the Normans in 1167 AD.
Regarding their purpose Wikipedia is a treasure trove of diverting mainstream misinformation which still references the works of the revered Anaemic Academic George Petrie.
However, after all the waffle, Wikipedia informs the reader that in the last 130 years the preferred mainstream narrative for Irish round towers has evolved from a secure place to keep church-plate to an equally preposterous “belfry” story-line.
Though there is no certain agreement as to their purpose, it is thought that they may have been bell towers, places of refuge, or both.
The purpose of the towers has been somewhat unclear until recent times.
A popular hypothesis in the past was that the towers were originally a redoubt against raiders such as Vikings.
If a lookout posted in the tower spotted a Viking force, the local population (or at least the clerics) would enter, using a ladder which could be raised from within.
The towers would be used to store religious relics and other plunderables.
However, there are many problems with this hypothesis.
Many towers are built in positions which are not ideal to survey the surrounding countryside and would not work efficiently as watch towers for incoming attacks.
In addition, the doors to these towers would have been wooden and therefore easily burned down.
Furthermore, due to the almost chimney-like design of the towers, the smoke from the burning door would have been carried upwards inside the tower causing any occupants to suffocate.
Therefore, it is more likely that the primary reason for the round tower was to act as a belfry, imitating the continental European style of bell tower which was popular at the time.
The Irish word for round tower, cloigtheach, literally meaning bellhouse indicates this, as noted by George Petrie in 1845.
However, the Irish language has greatly evolved over the last millennium.
Dinneen notes the alternate pronunciations, cluiceach and cuilceach for cloigtheach.
The closely pronounced cloichtheach means stone-house or stone-building.
Although the physical evidence pointing towards a bell tower is strong, we must await confirmation from original sources such as glyphs on medieval manuscripts.
Sadly, for the Anaemic Academics, the “belfry” hypothesis was shown to be a “preposterous” proposition [a mere] 184 years ago.
To conclude, therefore, this portion of our investigation, I shall observe, in Dr. Milner’s words,
“that none of these towers are large enough for a single bell, of a moderate size, to swing about in it ; that, from the whole of their form and dimensions, and from the smallness of the apertures in them, they are rather calculated to stifle than to transmit to a distance any sound that is made in them : lastly, that though, possibly, a small bell may have been accidentally put up in one or two of them at some late period, yet we constantly find other belfries, or contrivances for hanging bells, in the churches adjoining to them.”
I fear greatly I may have bestowed too much pains in dispelling the delusion of this preposterous opinion.
The Round Towers Of Ireland – H O’Brien – 1834
Reviewing the extant Irish round towers underlines the preposterous nature of the “belfry” hypothesis because some Irish round towers are not associated with churches.
However, the extant Irish round towers clearly indicate that Christian churches were frequently built in close proximity to ancient round towers.
The monastery of Clonmacnoise is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone.
The site includes the ruins of a cathedral, seven churches, two round towers, three high crosses and a large collection of Early Christian graveslabs.
Generally found in the vicinity of a church or monastery, the door of the tower faces the west doorway of the church.
In Scotland the mainstream propagates the same level of confusion [and never ending controversy] whenever they discuss Irish-style round tower.
This level of mainstream obscuration is underlined in Abernethy where the dating of the Irish-style round tower is qualified by “probably” and “believed”.
Abernethy is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, situated 8 mi (13 km) south-east of Perth.
It has one of Scotland’s two surviving Irish-style round towers (the other is at Brechin, Angus; both are in the care of Historic Scotland).
The tower was evidently built in two stages (shown by a change in the masonry), and probably dates to the 11th-early 12th centuries.
It is believed to date from around AD 1100, judging by the decoration around the first-floor doorway and the four belfry windows.
Historic Environment Scotland – Abernethy Round Tower
The Scottish brochs fair no better because the mainstream pontification regarding this style of round tower is [also] mired in never ending “controversy” and obscuration that closely mirrors the antics of the Irish Anaemic Academics.
A broch is an Iron Age drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland.
Their origin is a matter of some controversy.
The Shetland Amenity Trust lists about 120 sites in Shetland as candidate brochs, while the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) identifies a total of 571 candidate broch sites throughout the country.
Meanwhile, the increasing number – albeit still pitifully few – of radiocarbon dates for the primary use of brochs (as opposed to their later, secondary use) still suggests that most of the towers were built in the 1st centuries BC and AD.
A few may be earlier, notably the one proposed for Old Scatness Broch in Shetland, where a sheep bone dating to 390–200 BC has been reported.
The original interpretation of brochs, favoured by nineteenth century antiquarians, was that they were defensive structures, places of refuge for the community and their livestock.
They were sometimes regarded as the work of Danes or Picts.
From the 1930s to the 1960s, archaeologists like V. Gordon Childe and later John Hamilton regarded them as castles where local landowners held sway over a subject population.
The castle theory fell from favour among Scottish archaeologists in the 1980s, due to a lack of supporting archaeological evidence.
These archaeologists suggested that defensibility was never a major concern in the siting of a broch, and argued that they may have been the “stately homes” of their time, objects of prestige and very visible demonstrations of superiority for important families (Armit 2003).
Once again, however, there is a lack of archaeological proof for this reconstruction, and the sheer number of brochs, sometimes in places with a lack of good land, makes it problematic.
Brochs’ close groupings and profusion in many areas may indeed suggest that they had a primarily defensive or even offensive function.
In Wales the ravages of time [ably assisted by the Anaemic Academics and the Machiavellian Monasteries] has eliminated [or assimilated] the few remaining relics of the round tower culture.
The building whose ruins are here delineated stands at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, near the bridge laid over the river Usk; it is generally supposed of Roman construction, there having been a Roman station at this place, and the remains of an Amphitheatre; Baths, and other Roman works, being still discoverable, about and within the enceinte of its walls, which are said to have been near three miles in compass.
It seems difficult to assign the use for which this tower could have been built, its size for which the figures may serve as a scale, shew it could scarcely have been intended for defence, as from its smallness it could contain but very few men; perhaps it might be intended for a stair-case, or as the towers in Burgh caftle near Yarmouth, the Gariononum of the Romans, for a buttress to prop and strengthen the adjacent wall.
The antiquities of England and Wales Vol III New Edition – 1872 – Francis Grose
Llandysilio is a village and community in Powys, Wales.
The present parish church, dedicated to Saint Tysilio, dates from 1867 but tradition states that a church was founded here by Tysilio in the seventh century.
In England the Machiavellian Monasteries [tended to] unceremoniously bolt on their churches to the ancient round towers after the Heinsohn Horizon.
The unimaginative English have singularly failed to conjure-up a robust story-line for their round towers and the Anaemic Academics have simply resorted to an authoritarian promulgation that these round-tower churches “should not be confused” with the Irish round towers.
Round-tower churches are a type of church found mainly in England, mostly in East Anglia; of about 185 surviving examples in the country, 124 are in Norfolk, 38 in Suffolk, 6 in Essex, 3 in Sussex and 2 each in Cambridgeshire and Berkshire.
The reason for their construction – mostly by the Saxons – is a matter of dispute.
Round-tower churches should not be confused with similarly shaped structures such as the Irish round towers found in Ireland and Scotland, or with round churches, which have a circular plan and are often found in Denmark or Sweden.
There has been considerable discussion and disagreement about the age of round towers.
The relatively unsophisticated design of many round towers, the use of what appear to be Saxon features, and the absence of round towers in Norman or French Romanesque churches have lead some writers to suggest that they date from Saxon times before the Norman conquest in 1066.
The founder of the Round Tower Church Society, Bill Goode, suggested that a substantial proportion of round towers were of pre-conquest date.
However, Stephen Hart and others argue that many round towers are of a later date.
There are no records and so no hard evidence about when towers were built or when changes were made to church architecture.
Round Tower Churches Society – About Round Tower Churches
In France the Machiavellian Monasteries have predominately smoothed over their round tower problem by [either] bolting on a church or by employing them as stylish lanterns of the dead centrepieces in their cemeteries.
Lanterns of the Dead are small stone towers found chiefly in the centre and west of France, pierced with small openings at the top, where a light was exhibited at night to indicate the position of a cemetery.
These towers were usually circular, with a small entrance in the lower part giving access to the interior, so as to raise the lamps by a pulley to the required height.
One of the most perfect in France is that at Cellefrouin (Charente), which consists of a series of eight attached semicircular shafts, raised on a pedestal, and is crowned with a conical roof decorated with fir cones; it has only one aperture, towards the main road. Other examples exist at Ciron (Indre) and Antigny (Vienne).
There is one surviving example in England, in the churchyard at Bisley, Gloucestershire, which is referred to as the Poor Souls’ Light.
The origin and use of such lanterns are controversial.
Inventaire des lanternes des morts en France – Francis Cahuzac
In Germany the Machiavellian Monasteries also bolted on churches to the round towers after the Heinsohn Horizon.
There is evidence of about twenty round-tower churches in Germany, of similar design and construction to those in East Anglia.
However, there are still some remaining stand-alone round towers in Germany which the the Anaemic Academics classify as Roman, medieval and [even] stand-alone castles.
Grubenhagen Castle (German: Burg Grubenhagen) is a ruined medieval castle in North Germany dating to the 13th century.
Only the round, 18 metre high bergfried remains today.
It is not clear exactly when the castle was built, but it probably appeared during the reign of Henry the Lion (1129 to 1195).
There is evidence of about twenty round-tower churches in Germany, of similar design and construction to those in East Anglia.
In Spain there are still many stand-alone round towers which are [usually] uncherished and ignored because the compliant Anaemic Academics unquestioningly dismiss them as Islamic Watchtowers [or occasionally as Roman Towers].
In Sardinia the Anaemic Academics re-branded their round towers as nuraghes before they [successfully and very conveniently] sidelined their round towers into an isolated backwater that is labelled The Nuragic Civilization in the official historical narrative.
The nuraghe is the main type of ancient megalithic edifice found in Sardinia, developed during the Nuragic Age between 1900 and 730 BCE.
The Nuragic civilization was a civilization of Sardinia, lasting from the Bronze Age (18th century BC) to the 2nd century AD.
In mainland Italy it appears Mother Nature [probably assisted afterwards by the Machiavellian Monasteries] destroyed the Italian round towers at the Heinsohn Horizon.
The Italians never really embraced the spire as an architectural feature, preferring the classical styles.
The gothic style was a feature of Germanic northern Europe and was never to the Italian taste, and the few gothic buildings in Italy always seem incongruous.
An exception might be the round bell tower in Caorle [built in 1048] where it’s design, masonry and stand-alone position suggest it could have been built upon the ruins of a round tower.
Caorle (Càorle) is a coastal town in the province of Venice, Veneto, Italy, located between the estuaries of the Livenza and Lemene rivers.
It is situated on the Adriatic Sea between two other famous tourist towns, Eraclea and Bibione.
The Cathedral of St. Stephen was built in 1038, an example of Romanesque and of the Byzantine-Ravennate style.
Outside, the characteristic bell tower, dating to 1048, rises to a height of 48 meters.
Other exceptions might be found in Ravenna.
Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until that empire collapsed in 476.
Theoderic died in 526 and was succeeded by his young grandson Athalaric under the authority of his daughter Amalasunta, but by 535 both were dead and Theoderic’s line was represented only by Amalasuntha’s daughter Matasuntha.
One of the more curious aspects of this round tower narrative is that it suggests an unspecified [and widespread] pre-Christian belief system was flourishing in Western Europe immediately before Heinsohn Horizon…