The Senegal Swing

Plenty of people are perplexed by Ptolemy’s peculiar perspectives.

Ptolemy’s rectangular North Africa is particularly puzzling.

However, Ptolemy’s North Africa becomes far more familiar when it’s Western coastline is subjected to a 48° [clockwise] Senegal Swing.

Reconciling Ptolemy’s Fortunate Islands with modern maps is a challenge.

Malaga Bay – Cape Bojador and The Fortunate Islands

The Senegal Swing probably coincided with the opening of the Red Sea but it’s likely the revised co-ordinates for West Africa weren’t updated in Ptolemy’s Geography.

The Heinsohn Horizon and The Parting of the Red Sea

The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy’s Geography, however, only date from about 1300, after the text was rediscovered by Maximus Planudes.

It seems likely that the topographical tables in books 2–7 are cumulative texts – texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy. This means that information contained in different parts of the Geography is likely to be of different dates.

Wikipedia – Ptolemy

Malaga Bay – The Arabian Horizon – The Ptolemy Inheritance

… the surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy’s Geography [AD 150] date from “about 1300” i.e. 150 AD + 1170 years = 1320 CE.

Malaga Bay – The Classical Latin Continuity Kludge

Either way:

In a remarkable coincidence / confirmation [delete as appropriate] the trajectory of the Canaries is very closely aligned with the 48° Senegal Swing.

The trajectory indicates the vertical velocity is slightly greater than the horizontal velocity.

The curved shape of the Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde volcanic chains suggest the vertical and horizontal velocities increased as the volcanic chains moved northwards.

It’s possible the Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde volcanic chains are trailing edge artefacts attached to North Africa by lava tubes containing friction heated molten rock.

Cueva de los Verdes is a lava tube and tourist attraction of the Haria municipality on the island of Lanzarote in the Canary Islands (Spain).

Wikipedia – Cueva de los Verdes

A lava tube, or pyroduct, is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava from a volcanic vent that moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow. If lava in the tube empties, it will leave a cave.

Wikipedia – Lava Tube

Independent observers having problems swallowing this burial and resurrection narrative promoted by the Ecclesiastical Scientists might like to consider forgotten friction.

Malaga Bay – Flipping Geology: Forgotten Friction

Either way:

The increases in vertical and horizontal velocities with latitude are consistent with an Inflating Earth transitioning from an ovoid to a spheroid.

The Inflating Earth
If the Earth was once “like an egg” with an “altitude” of “one third the diameter” Then there should be some evidence of the Earth’s inflationary evolution.

Malaga Bay – Alaskan Muck: Anaximander’s Cake

The increase in horizontal velocity with latitude helps explain the 48° Senegal Swing experienced by Ptolemy’s North Africa.

The evidence suggests the Senegal Swing detached Southern Africa from North Africa.

In 2018 the realm of Geomagnetism was disturbed by results showing Southern Africa performed a “coherent loop” of 360 degrees between [about] 425 and 1370 CE.

The second clue that the mainstream has missed a trick is the Al-Mas‘udi world map which clearly indicates Northern Africa and Southern Africa were once separate land masses.

The mainstream dating of the Al-Mas‘udi world map is 947 AD.

Malaga Bay – Spinning Southern Africa

Al-Mas’udi (c. 896–956) was an Arab historian, geographer and traveler.

Wikipedia – Al-Masudi

It’s said the “majority” of Fuerteventura was created 5 million years ago.

Fuerteventura is the oldest island in the Canary Islands dating back 20 million years to a volcanic eruption from the Canary hotspot.

The majority of the island was created about 5 million years ago and since then has been eroded by wind and precipitation.

On the seabed off the West coast of the island rests an enormous slab of bedrock 22 km (14 mi) long and 11 km (7 mi) wide, which appears to have slid off the island largely intact at some point in prehistory, similar to the predicted future collapse of Cumbre Vieja, a geological fault on another Canary Island, La Palma.

The last volcanic activity in Fuerteventura occurred between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago.

Wikipedia – Fuerteventura

This places the making of the “majority” of Fuerteventura in the Messinian stage of the Miocene.

Wikipedia – Miocene

The Miocene places the making of the “majority” of Fuerteventura in the Current Era.

This inexplicable discovery then became a catastrophic problem for the mainstream when Louis Hissink reported the Roman aqueduct was buried under Miocene stratigraphy.

Malaga Bay – The Miocene Mysteries

Earth Scientists would be better served if they stopped adding lots of lovely noughts to their geological ages because the latest epochs are dated by artefacts and observations.

Malaga Bay – Geological Rot

And the making of the “majority” of Fuerteventura in the Current Era probably provides an explanation for seafarers reporting the ocean was “burning past Cape Bojador”.

Cape Bojador … is also known as the “Bulging Cape”, although no references to this usage are to be found in standard geographical references.

The Cape’s name in Arabic is “Abu Khatar”, meaning “the father of danger”.

The disappearance of numerous European vessels that had made prior attempts to round the Cape despite its violent seas, led some to suggest the presence of sea monsters.

They thought the ocean was burning past Cape Bojador

Wikipedia – Cape Bojador

Getting past Cape Bojador was a major problem for “superstitious” seafarers [especially those that didn’t return home] who thought “sea monsters” and the “edge of the world” lay beyond.

The Cape Bojador volcanic activity subsided between 1433 and 1434.

Malaga Bay – Cape Bojador and The Burning Ocean

As always:

Review the evidence and draw your own conclusions.

This entry was posted in Arabian Horizon, Cape Bojador, Flipping Geology, Geology, Geomagnetism, Hecker Horizon, Heinsohn Horizon, History, Inflating Earth, Roman Chronology. Bookmark the permalink.

16 Responses to The Senegal Swing

  1. Patrick Donnelly says:

    Have you looked at Zealandia? It is obviously the erupted magma from the crustal lippage of australia, rotating to the NW and moving 3,000 kms.

    The Tibetan vulcanism/tower of Babel/Tree of lights/dancing man dragged crust towards Tibet with most of the planetary expansion happening shortly thereafter

  2. Cannot say much here, except for two minor points:
    The first concerns Ptolemy. DIO, and separately RR Newton in another DIO issue, both refer to Ptolemy as untrustworthy. See Newton here at pg45 sec G. part quote “However, the fact that he included these discordant observations in his work, without pointing out that they are discordant, increases the evidence that Ptolemy’s work is a deliberate fraud.” Not only in astronomical measurements; he is accused of changing the ancient astronomical star/zodiac names.

    The second point is on ‘tectonic rotations’. Cannot say of the above, but in the Med these can be traced with good certainty. Link
    Because calendars must be axially aligned to equinox horizon sunrise point, these provide both the evidence and a reliable date.
    Block rotations in geology are one study field. Prof A Nur leads in this area; see….14..746N/abstract Note the approx 45deg rotation; sound similar to the engineering ‘principal stress plane’ of failure. The two rotations in the Maltese islands are both near/centre around the 45deg.

    • malagabay says:

      People perceive Ptolemy differently.

      Instead of identifying changes Gradualists identify “errors”.


      • Quote: “People perceive Ptolemy differently.” People, the general term ie the majority, are like the herrings in a shoal. The confusion of the surroundings is comforting. The ‘analytical’ on the other hand ask why; those on the fringe. Thus, can Ptolemy be trusted?

        “Gradualists who don’t accept Before and After”. That is also a herring mentality, seeking solace in an unchanging fundamental, like ‘the solid land beneath our feet’ or the ‘non changing’ routine of the seasons. (ergo the climate change panic). Genesis make such assurance after the flood.

        Bad leaders pander to that idea. Religions tend to use those means to attract followers. We have leaders presently promising a return to a better normality after Covid, when in truth they don’t even understand the dynamics of pandemics.

        I suspect Ptolemy had ulterior motives, particularly with the idea of a geocentric solar system, and the renaming of star names to famous Greek mythical persons, from the original agrarian metaphorical names. If I’m not mistaken Al Sufi corrected some. As the classical writers had indicated, they had known exactly what the ancient myths meant.

  3. Yry says:

    “Northern Africa and Southern Africa were once separate land masses.”

    A ==> Concerning this Southern Africa land mass:
    1- was it one the results of the Earth inflating?
    2- Did this happen between 900 – 1100 CE? or prior to the Hecker Horizon?

    B ==> Regarding the name SENEGAL:
    1- To me, it doesn’t sound Senegalese. I could be wrong though.
    Would anyone know the origin of this name on this site?

    Ever so fascinating, thank you Tim!


    Off topic. @ melitamegalithic: thanks for the extract from europedia.

    • malagabay says:

      Concerning this Southern Africa land mass


      I will be a lot happier when the spinning “Southern Africa land mass” has a few more lines of supporting evidence.

      Thus far the evidence suggests it broke free from the North Africa so it could perform a pirouette before re-attaching itself to North Africa.

      Hopefully, serendipity will provide some additional insights and information in the future.

      My current guess:

      Arabia and Southern Africa separated from North Africa at the Arabian Horizon.

      I suspect the Americas started separating from Europe and Africa at the same time.

      I also suspect the Inflating Earth contributed to the fracturing of the land masses.

      However, the dynamics of a spinning spheroid also drive land mass movements.

      But they are only guesses.

      No doubt these guesses will evolve as more information becomes available.

      Look at the evidence, draw your own conclusions, and make your own guesses.


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  5. Louis Hissink says:

    “The paucity of Southern Hemisphere archeomagnetic data limits the resolution of paleosecular variation models. At the same time, important changes in the modern and historical field, including the recent dipole decay, appear to originate in this region. Here a new directional record from southern Africa is presented from analysis of Iron Age (ca. 425–1550 CE) archeological materials, which extends the regional secular variation curve back to the first millennium. Previous studies have identified a period of rapid directional change between 1225 and ∼1550 CE. The new data allow us to identify an earlier period of relatively rapid change between the sixth and seventh centuries CE. Implications for models of recurrent flux expulsion at the core‐mantle boundary are discussed. In addition, we identify a possible relationship of changes recorded in these African data with archeomagnetic jerks.”(

    The apparent rotation of Southern Africa from archaeomagnetic data does not mean the continent rotated. The magnetic readings were from archaeological artifacts. No rock’s geomagnetism was measured. The immediate conclusion, therefore, is that the geomagnetic field changed polarity and the only way that could happen if there were a stronger external magnetic forcing, such as a bypassing cometary interloper affecting the geomagnetic field. Rotational inertia would have kept the Earth on its axis of rotation but induced electric currents/solar wind/telluric currents would have played havoc with the geomagnetic field polarity directions.

    • malagabay says:

      “The apparent rotation of Southern Africa from archaeomagnetic data does not mean the continent rotated.”


      You’re very welcome to call me old fashioned but when the “results define a coherent loop in the archeomagnetic curve for southern Africa between ca. 425 and ca. 1370 CE.” then it seems possible Southern Africa actually performed a “coherent loop”.

      It may seem unlikely,
      It may seem implausible.

      But the last time I checked a “coherent loop” still means a “coherent loop”.

      In the context of the Senegal Swing it appears “sedimentary directions” suggest the ca. 1400 CE episode was “particularly robust” and it’s possible this represents the collision of Southern African with Northern Africa.

      Either way:

      Modern Europeans only started their “Age of Discovery” of the New World after 1400 CE.

      European exploration outside the Mediterranean started with the Portuguese discoveries of the Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Azores in 1419 and 1427 respectively, then the coast of West Africa after 1434 until the establishment of the sea route to India in 1498 by Vasco da Gama. The Crown of Castile (Spain) sponsored the transatlantic voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas between 1492 and 1504, and the first circumnavigation of the globe between 1519 and 1522 by the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan (completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano).

      Wikipedia – Age of Discovery

      The “Age of Discovery” embraced finding valuable parts of the Old World.

      The existence of the Senegal River was known to the early Mediterranean civilizations.

      It or some other river was called Bambotus by Pliny the Elder (possibly from Phoenician “behemoth” for hippopotamus) and Nias by Claudius Ptolemy.

      It was visited by Hanno the Carthaginian around 450 BCE at his navigation from Carthage through the pillars of Herakles to Theon Ochema (Mount Cameroon) in the Gulf of Guinea.

      There was trade from here to the Mediterranean World, until the destruction of Carthage and its west African trade net in 146 BCE.

      Wikipedia – Senegal River

      Gradualist Historians have problems finding acceptable locations for the Biblical Havilah and Ophir which are [both] associated with gold and King Solomon.

      The Arabian Horizon – Lost Lands: Havilah

      “No rock’s geomagnetism was measured.”

      Perhaps it’s difficult finding “rocks” that can be reliably assigned to the “425–1550 CE” date range.

  6. Louis Hissink says:

    Inaddition: “We have identified and sampled the remains of burnt daga (mud) grain bins, hut floors, and cattle enclosures (kraals) from well‐dated Early and Late Iron Age localities around the Shashe‐Limpopo confluence and surrounding plateaus (see Figure 1) in northern South Africa, Botswana and Zimbabwe.”

    A fiery holocaust by the looks of it which fits with Gunnars’ dark-earth layer in Rome, etc..

    • malagabay says:

      It would be interesting to known:

      a) The dates of their “well-dated” Early Iron Age localities.
      b) The dates of their “well-dated” Late Iron Age localities.
      c) Whether their concept of “burnt” includes bush fires and/or “fiery holocaust”.

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